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第 6 章 计算机网络及其体系结构 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第 6 章 计算机网络及其体系结构. 概述 计算机网络的体系结构 体系结构的若干重要概念. 6.1 概述. 计算机网络的发展过程 计算机网络的定义 计算机网络的分类 计算机网络的功能及应用. 6.1.1 计算机网络的发展过程. 1946 年第一台数字电子计算机问世 单机 大、中、小型机 —— 庞大,昂贵 缺点 —— 资源无法共享 网络 始于 50’s ,近几十年发展迅速。发展的动力: —— 资源共享的需求 —— 大型项目的合作 —— 人与人之间的沟通 计算机网络的发展大致经历了三个阶段: 联机系统 计算机通信计算机网络.

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第 6 章 计算机网络及其体系结构

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6


6.1


6.1.1

  • 1946

    • 50s


  • 2060s


    • SABRE-1

      • 1 HOST

      • 2000 Terminal

    • /

    • FEP


.

  • 2060s 2070s



IMP

IMP

IMP

IMP


    • ARPANET

      • 470s60


.

  • 2070s-

    • IBM-SNA,DEC-DNA

      • TCP/IP


  • ISO-OSI/RM

    • Open System Interconnection/ Recommended ModelOSI

    • OSI

    • WHAT TO DOHOW TO DO

    • OSI/RM


6.1.2

  • ()

    • ()


        • OS


6.1.3


1.

    • +



2.


3.

  • (LAN, Local Area Network)

    • 20KM

    • 10-1000Mbps10-11

  • (MAN, Metropolitan Area Network)

    • 100KM

    • /

  • (WAN, Wide Area Network)

    • 100KM


4.


6.1.4


  • 2.

      • resource sharing

      • high reliability

      • saving money

      • communication medium

        -client-server model


    • WWWTelnet

    • e-mailvideo conference

    • VODvideo on demand


6.2

  • OSI

  • TCP/IP


  • ------


    • OSI

    • TCP/IP


Network

6.2.1

      • (activate)


    • 1.

    • 2.

    • 3.





    • Architecture


    6.2.2 OSI

    • OSI

    • OSI

    • OSI


    1. OSI

    • OSIOpen System Interconnection

        • OSIOSI

    • OSI/RM


    • OSI

      • (architecture)

      • (service definition)

      • (protocol specification)


    • OSI

    Application

    7

    6

    5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    Presentation

    session

    transport

    Network

    Data Link

    Physical


    2. OSI

      • bit

    Bit

    Bit


      • bit

      • Bitbit

      • RS23210Base2V.35X.21


    00110001110

    00110011110

    bit

    SAP

    SAP

    /

    /


    • bit

    bit

    Bit


    Bit


      • MTU

      • bit:

      • HDLCPPP802.3


    Packet

    SAP

    Packet

    • /

    • MTU

    L1bitFrame

    Frame


    ,

    ,()

    L3

    L3


    • IPX.25


    a.

    A

    B

    b.


    • L3

    • L2

    • L2MTU

    L2

    L2


    • L3

    L2

    L2

    L3


    L3

    X.25

    IP net

    CLNP

    Ethenet


    • MTU


    • L3

      • ---


    C

    B

    A

    (3)

    (1)

    (n)

    (2)

    • (i)(i)


    • TCPUDP



    C

    B

    A




    WWW

    VOD


    • OSI

      • ASCEBCDIC


    3. OSI

    • OSI

    • OSI

      • OSI


    6.2.3 TCP/IP

    • TCP/IP(DARPA)

    • TCP/IPInternet

    • TCP/IP4

      • application

      • transport

      • internet

      • network interface


    6.3


    6.3.1

      • OSI

      • 3


    OSI


    6.3.2


    IP

    IPX

    IP

    IPX

    IPIPX


    ?


    6.3.3

      • N


    • (N)(N+1)

      • (N)

      • (N-1)

      • (N)


    • (SAP,Service Access Point):

    N+1

    Service User

    N+1

    SAP

    N

    Service Provider

    N


    • SAP

    • SAP

    • SAP

    • ,SAP


  • 6.3.4

      • ,


    • OSI

      • Request

      • Indication

      • Response

      • Confirm

      • IndReq

        RespIndReq

        ConfResp

        Req


    Req

    Ind

    Resp

    Conf

    Req

    Ind

    Resp

    Ind

    Req

    Conf

    :


    6.3.5


    • OSI


    • 1. SDUService Data Unit

      • (N)SDU(N+1)(N)

      • (N)SDU(N)


    • 2. PDU(Protocol Data Unit)

        • PCI

        • UD

    PDU

    • PDU

      • APDU

      • PPDU

      • SPDU

      • TPDUDatagram

      • NPDUPacketDatagram

      • LPDUFrame


    • 3. IDU(Interface Data Unit)

        • ID

        • ICI


    ICI

    Data

    ICI

    Data

    SDU

    SDU

    ICI

    ICI

    Data

    Data

    H

    H

    ICI

    ICI

    (n)PDU

    (n)PDU

    ICI

    Data

    ICI

    Data


    6.3.6




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