Effects of metal on grass
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Effects of Metal on Grass. Joe Shcumaker. Abstract.

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Effects of Metal on Grass

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Effects of metal on grass

Effects of Metal on Grass

Joe Shcumaker


Abstract

Abstract

This study involved the effects of unusually large amounts of Copper or Iron or Aluminum, and whether or not they would lessen plant growth. The hypothesis provided was that they would affect the growth rate of the plants, with larger quantities potentially having greater effects. It was thought that Aluminum would have the greatest effect of the three metals, but instead had the mildest reaction of the three. Eight categories were designated For each metal, one plant was designated to receive ¼ teaspoon of the metal, and another plant designated to receive ¾ teaspoon of the metal. Different amounts were selected to determine if the amount of the metal made a difference, or if it was merely the presence of the metal that affected the plant. At the end of the two week period, it became clear that Copper had the most significant effect of the three metals, with iron having the least effect and the ¼ specimen for it even equaling one of the controls in height on the last day. The control was about ½ in taller than the ¼ categories averaged, and about 1 ½ in. taller than the ¾ categories averaged.


Review of literature

Review of Literature

Aluminum prevents root growth in plants. Grasses such as wheat have developed a resistance to aluminum. Copper also affects the roots and is often introduced by industrial waste, or by organic matter, such as rotting leaves. Iron has the same affects, but also causes a darkening in the leaves, and is typically found in soil that has not been aerated and with high acid levels. The most important sources were “The effect of copper toxicity on the growth and morphology of Rhodes grass (Chlorisgayana) in solution culture” and the Michigan state university extension.


Question and hypothesis

Question and Hypothesis

If ¼ tsp. Iron filings are introduced to a small plant pot while seeds are growing, the plant will be smaller in height. If ¾ tsp. of Iron is added, the same symptoms will occur, but more severely. If ¼ tsp. of Copper is added, then the plant will develop a slightly dented height similar to Iron, with ¾ tsp., the effects will be the same but, again, more severe and, if done in the wild, made more resistant to infections due to Coppers anti-germ properties. If ¼ tsp. of Aluminum is added then the plant will acquire dented growth, and the effects for ¾ of a tsp. of Aluminum will be the same but more severe.


Experimental design

Experimental Design

Materials List

  • 1 tsp. of Iron filings

  • 1 tsp. Copper filings

  • 1 tsp. Aluminum filings

  • 8 small pots

  • One 20 oz. bag of dirt

  • One large bag of grass seed

  • Constant Variables: Soil, water, temperature

  • Manipulated Variables: Presence of Metals, metal types

  • Resulting Variable: Growth

Pots after first week


Procedure

Procedure

  • Get ¼ tsp. for each category, and ¾ tsp. for each category.

  • Mix the ¼ tsps in their respective pots, and do the same for the ¾ tsps

  • Plant one tsp. of grass seed for each pot

  • Water each pot with three tablespoons of water each day for two weeks, collecting height data everyday

  • Analyze data after the end of the two weeks


Overall data

Overall Data


Overall chart

Overall Chart


Averaged chart

Averaged Chart


Conclusions and future studies

Conclusions and Future studies

  • Metals do have a significant effect on plant growth, specifically copper. The results supported the hypothesis completely, with the presence of metals clearly stunting growth, doing it even more in the larger quantities of metals. The lack of growth in the experimental categories may have been due to the metal preventing the roots from absorbing water from the soil, slowing growth.

  • Metals do have a significant effect on plant growth, specifically copper. The results supported the hypothesis completely, with the presence of metals clearly stunting growth, doing it even more in the larger quantities of metals. The lack of growth in the experimental categories may have been due to the metal preventing the roots from absorbing water from the soil, slowing growth.


Bibliography

Bibliography

"Iron Basics." Spectrum Analytic Inc. Spectrum Anaylitic. Web. 14 Dec. 2009. http://www.spectrumanalytic.com/support/library/ff/Fe_Basics.htm

"Iron." MSUE Portal. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. http://web1.msue.msu.edu/imp/modf1/05209708.html

Rehm, George, and MichealSchmit. "Copper for Crop Production." University of Minnesota Extension Home Page. University of Minnesota. Web. 14 Dec. 2009. http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/DC6790.html

Sheldon, Anna. "The effect of Copper toxicity on the growth and morphology of Rhodes grass (Chlorisgayana) in solution culture." The Regional Institute. The Regional Institue LTD. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. http://www.regional.org.au/au/asssi/supersoil2004/s3/oral/1519_sheldona.htm


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