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The Cold War Expands. Angela Brown Chapter 16 Section 3. The Korean War. 1945 Allies divide Korea into Soviet-Occupied northern zone and an American – Occupied Southern Zone. Occupying forces withdrew from both zones in 1948-1949.

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The cold war expands

The Cold War Expands

Angela Brown

Chapter 16 Section 3

The korean war
The Korean War

  • 1945 Allies divide Korea into Soviet-Occupied northern zone and an American – Occupied Southern Zone.

  • Occupying forces withdrew from both zones in 1948-1949.

Korean war
Korean War

  • June 1950, the Korean War broke out when North Korean troops streamed across the 38th parallel, the latitude dividing the two nations, aiming to reunite Korea by Force.

  • The USSR was boycotting the Security Council protesting the exclusion of Communist China, the UN was able to act to defend South Korea.


Douglas macarthur
Douglas MacArthur

  • Hero of two World Wars – strong anti-communist Truman’s choice to lead UN forces in Korea

  • Graduated from U.S. military academy at West Point in 1903



  • Cited 7 times for bravery in WWI and by 1918 at age 38 he attained rank of general.

  • 1930 Army Chief of Staff

  • WWII – Commander of American forces in Asia

  • Virtual dictator of Japan during postwar – responsible for establishing Western Democracy – creating new democratic constitution


  • Less successful in implementing democracy in South Korea – supported South Korean President Syngman Rhee

  • Hero to troops and American Public

  • Disliked as overly ambitious by political leaders


  • MacArthur had little respect for both Roosevelt and Truman.

  • He viewed them as soft on communism.

  • He had contempt for anyone with authority over him; it undermined his otherwise brilliant career.

The korean war1
The Korean War

  • Excellent military strategist, MacArthur, developed a bold plan to drive the invaders from South Korea.

  • South Korea overtaken in just a few weeks – except small part near port city of Pusan.

  • Guessed that swift advance had left supply lines stretched thin.

  • Sept 1950 attacked enemy supply lines from behind and sent forces to defend Pusan.

Korean war1
Korean War

  • His strategy worked . The North Koreans fled back across 38th Parallel.

  • UN troops pursued them Northward and began boasting of reuniting Korea under South Korean government.

  • Chinese joined North Koreans and pushed UN forces back into South Korea; a stalemate developed.

Macarthur fired
MacArthur Fired opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

  • MacArthur sent letter to House minority leader Joseph Marlin in March 1951 attacking the President’s policy.

  • Martin made letter public; on April 11 Truman fired MacArthur for insubordination.

  • The struggle dragged on for two more years.

Truce? opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

  • 1953 truce signed; left Korea divided by the 38th parallel as before.

  • Americans wondered why 55,000 soldiers had been killed and 103,000 wounded for limited results.

  • Was the U.S. serious about stopping communism?

The cold war in the 1950s
The Cold War in the 1950s opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

  • 1953 Eisenhower succeeded Truman.

  • New phase of Cold War policy

  • Sec of State John Foster Dulles called for a policy to roll back communism.

  • Eisenhower recognized risk of confronting Soviets did not intervene in revolts in Eastern Germany, Poland and Hungary in 1956.

  • Policy of containment continued.

Dwight d eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

Southeast asia
Southeast Asia opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

  • July 1953 fulfilled campaign promise to end Korean War – aided by death of Stalin in March.

  • Conflict developed in Vietnam – French colony

  • 1945 Ho Chi Minh, head of Vietnamese Communist Party declared independence.

Ho chi minh
Ho Chi Minh opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

Domino theory
Domino theory opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

  • France sent troops to reassert authority = war

  • Eisenhower believed in Domino theory

  • If one country fell to communists its neighbors would soon follow.

  • By 1954 U.S. providing military aid to support France in Vietnam.


  • May 1954, major defeat = France withdrew forces

  • International conference divided Vietnam like Korea.

  • U.S. provided aid to South Vietnam but resisted greater involvement.

The middle east
The Middle East

  • British controlled Palestine – region on Med. Coast and biblical home of Jewish people

  • 1930s many Jews sought safety in Palestine – called for a Jewish state

  • 1947 British turned over to UN – created two states one Jewish and one Arab


Israel iran
Israel - Iran

  • May 1948 Jews in Palestine proclaimed new nation of Israel.

  • Arab nations opposed – backed by Soviets

  • U.S. worked to prevent oil-rich Arab nations from falling to Soviets.

  • 1952 nationalist leader gained control in Iran

  • U.S. (CIA) organized overthrow – returned power to pro-American Shah of Iran


Suez crisis
Suez Crisis

  • Suez Crisis in 1956 – Egypt’s ruler, Nasser, sought Soviet support

  • U.S./GB stopped aid.

  • Nasser seized the Suez Canal a vital waterway through Egypt allowing Middle East oil to reach Europe.

  • 1956 British and French attack Egypt.

  • Eisenhower persuaded NATO allies to withdraw from Egypt.

Suez canal
Suez Canal

Eisenhower doctrine
Eisenhower Doctrine

  • 1957 announced Eisenhower Doctrine

  • The U.S. would use force to safeguard independent countries in Middle East requesting aid against aggression.

  • Used Doctrine in 1958 to put down revolt against Lebanese government.

Latin america
Latin America

  • 1947 Rio Pact – a regional defense alliance with 18 other nations in the Western Hemisphere.

  • 1948 formed organization of American States (OAS) to increase cooperation among nations of Hemisphere.

Latin america1
Latin America

  • 1954 CIA helped overthrow government of Guatemala.

  • Leaders were sympathetic to radical causes.

  • Restored property of United Fruit company seized by Guatemalan government from American corporation.



  • 1958 Fidel Castro overthrew corrupt Cuban dictator Batista. (ties to U.S. organized crime)

  • Eisenhower would not support Castro; CIA reported infiltration of movement by communist.

  • Castro seized U.S. property in Cuba; Eisenhower cut diplomatic ties and halted exports to Island.

  • Castro turned to Soviets for economic and military aid.

Leadership change
Leadership Change

Republic of cuba
Republic of Cuba

The arms race
The Arms Race

  • Arms Race – struggle to gain weapons superiority The Growth of Nuclear Arsenals

  • 1953 one year after U.S test of thermonuclear device, Soviets tested hydrogen device.

  • 1953 Eisenhower announced atoms for Peace Plan at UN.

First hydrogen test
First Hydrogen Test

  • World’s nations work together under UN supervision to find peaceful uses for nuclear technology; Soviets refused to participate.

  • Eisenhower stepped up American weapons development program.

  • First hydrogen test in March 1954; 750 times more powerful than bomb dropped on Nagaski.


  • Japanese fisherman 90 miles away radiation burns-Island 200 miles away evacuated

  • Test revealed nuclear war threatened entire world with radioactive contamination.


  • 1956 Secretary of State Dulles stated U.S. prepared to risk war to protect national interest.

  • Brinkmanship – ability to get to verge without getting into war

Cold war in the skies
Cold War in the Skies

  • U.S. Airforce to carry hydrogen bombs to targets; Soviets could not match strength.

  • Developed ICBM’s – long-range rockets known as intercontinental ballistic missiles as primary delivery system

  • U.S worked to develop ICBM’s lagged behind Soviet’s in missile development due to dependence on conventional air power.

Icbm launch
ICBM launch



  • Technological gap startling in 1957; Soviets used one of rockets to launch Sputnik – first artificial satellite to orbit Earth.

  • Americans mortified – rocket could carry hydrogen bomb to U.S.

  • U.S. satellite rushed to launch before ready; crashed.


U 2 incident
U-2 incident

  • U-2 incident – Soviets shot down U.S. spy plane over Soviet Union with guided missile.

  • It flew 15 miles high; we assumed it was immune to attack.

Gary powers
Gary Powers


  • Francis Gary Powers: ImprisonedPowers spent almost 21 months in prison in the Soviet Union.

  • During that time, he openly kept a diary of his daily activities.

  • In November 1960 he began secretly writing a journal, which opens with a detailed recounting of the downing of his U-2.

  • When released, Powers hid the diary and journal in a rug he had embroidered while in prison and carried them out of the Soviet Union.