The cold war expands
Download
1 / 46

The Cold War Expands - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 90 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Cold War Expands. Angela Brown Chapter 16 Section 3. http://www.ambrosevideo.com/resources/docs/200.JPG. The Korean War. 1945 Allies divide Korea into Soviet-Occupied northern zone and an American – Occupied Southern Zone. Occupying forces withdrew from both zones in 1948-1949.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' The Cold War Expands' - slade


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
The cold war expands

The Cold War Expands

Angela Brown

Chapter 16 Section 3



The korean war
The Korean War

  • 1945 Allies divide Korea into Soviet-Occupied northern zone and an American – Occupied Southern Zone.

  • Occupying forces withdrew from both zones in 1948-1949.

http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/fi/0000019f.jpg


Korean war
Korean War

  • June 1950, the Korean War broke out when North Korean troops streamed across the 38th parallel, the latitude dividing the two nations, aiming to reunite Korea by Force.

  • The USSR was boycotting the Security Council protesting the exclusion of Communist China, the UN was able to act to defend South Korea.


Today
Today

http://www.landofthemorningstorm.com/Pictures/38th.jpg


Douglas macarthur
Douglas MacArthur

  • Hero of two World Wars – strong anti-communist Truman’s choice to lead UN forces in Korea

  • Graduated from U.S. military academy at West Point in 1903

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos

/images/h62000/h62439.jpg


Macarthur
MacArthur

  • Cited 7 times for bravery in WWI and by 1918 at age 38 he attained rank of general.

  • 1930 Army Chief of Staff

  • WWII – Commander of American forces in Asia

  • Virtual dictator of Japan during postwar – responsible for establishing Western Democracy – creating new democratic constitution


Macarthur1
MacArthur

  • Less successful in implementing democracy in South Korea – supported South Korean President Syngman Rhee

  • Hero to troops and American Public

  • Disliked as overly ambitious by political leaders


Macarthur2
MacArthur

  • MacArthur had little respect for both Roosevelt and Truman.

  • He viewed them as soft on communism.

  • He had contempt for anyone with authority over him; it undermined his otherwise brilliant career.


The korean war1
The Korean War

  • Excellent military strategist, MacArthur, developed a bold plan to drive the invaders from South Korea.

  • South Korea overtaken in just a few weeks – except small part near port city of Pusan.

  • Guessed that swift advance had left supply lines stretched thin.

  • Sept 1950 attacked enemy supply lines from behind and sent forces to defend Pusan.



Korean war1
Korean War

  • His strategy worked . The North Koreans fled back across 38th Parallel.

  • UN troops pursued them Northward and began boasting of reuniting Korea under South Korean government.

  • Chinese joined North Koreans and pushed UN forces back into South Korea; a stalemate developed.



Macarthur fired
MacArthur Fired opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

  • MacArthur sent letter to House minority leader Joseph Marlin in March 1951 attacking the President’s policy.

  • Martin made letter public; on April 11 Truman fired MacArthur for insubordination.

  • The struggle dragged on for two more years.


Truce
Truce? opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

  • 1953 truce signed; left Korea divided by the 38th parallel as before.

  • Americans wondered why 55,000 soldiers had been killed and 103,000 wounded for limited results.

  • Was the U.S. serious about stopping communism?


The cold war in the 1950s
The Cold War in the 1950s opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

  • 1953 Eisenhower succeeded Truman.

  • New phase of Cold War policy

  • Sec of State John Foster Dulles called for a policy to roll back communism.

  • Eisenhower recognized risk of confronting Soviets did not intervene in revolts in Eastern Germany, Poland and Hungary in 1956.

  • Policy of containment continued.


Dwight d eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

http://www.americaslibrary.gov/assets/aa/eisenhower/aa_eisenhower_subj_e.jpg


Southeast asia
Southeast Asia opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

  • July 1953 fulfilled campaign promise to end Korean War – aided by death of Stalin in March.

  • Conflict developed in Vietnam – French colony

  • 1945 Ho Chi Minh, head of Vietnamese Communist Party declared independence.


Ho chi minh
Ho Chi Minh opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

http://www.facade.com/celebrity/photo/Ho_Chi_Minh.jpg


Domino theory
Domino theory opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.

  • France sent troops to reassert authority = war

  • Eisenhower believed in Domino theory

  • If one country fell to communists its neighbors would soon follow.

  • By 1954 U.S. providing military aid to support France in Vietnam.


http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpghttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

http://dsf.chesco.org/heroes/images/s_vietnam_map.gif


Vietnam
Vietnamhttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • May 1954, major defeat = France withdrew forces

  • International conference divided Vietnam like Korea.

  • U.S. provided aid to South Vietnam but resisted greater involvement.


The middle east
The Middle Easthttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • British controlled Palestine – region on Med. Coast and biblical home of Jewish people

  • 1930s many Jews sought safety in Palestine – called for a Jewish state

  • 1947 British turned over to UN – created two states one Jewish and one Arab


Palestine
Palestinehttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

http://www.shuruq.com/Palestine_files/palestine.jpg


Israel iran
Israel - Iranhttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • May 1948 Jews in Palestine proclaimed new nation of Israel.

  • Arab nations opposed – backed by Soviets

  • U.S. worked to prevent oil-rich Arab nations from falling to Soviets.

  • 1952 nationalist leader gained control in Iran

  • U.S. (CIA) organized overthrow – returned power to pro-American Shah of Iran


Israel
Israelhttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

http://ec.europa.eu/comm/external_relations/israel/images/acp_israel_w600.gif


Suez crisis
Suez Crisishttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • Suez Crisis in 1956 – Egypt’s ruler, Nasser, sought Soviet support

  • U.S./GB stopped aid.

  • Nasser seized the Suez Canal a vital waterway through Egypt allowing Middle East oil to reach Europe.

  • 1956 British and French attack Egypt.

  • Eisenhower persuaded NATO allies to withdraw from Egypt.


Suez canal
Suez Canalhttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

http://www.yachtaragorn.com/maps/large/DjiboutitoSuezCanal.jpg


Eisenhower doctrine
Eisenhower Doctrinehttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • 1957 announced Eisenhower Doctrine

  • The U.S. would use force to safeguard independent countries in Middle East requesting aid against aggression.

  • Used Doctrine in 1958 to put down revolt against Lebanese government.


Latin america
Latin Americahttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • 1947 Rio Pact – a regional defense alliance with 18 other nations in the Western Hemisphere.

  • 1948 formed organization of American States (OAS) to increase cooperation among nations of Hemisphere.


Latin america1
Latin Americahttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • 1954 CIA helped overthrow government of Guatemala.

  • Leaders were sympathetic to radical causes.

  • Restored property of United Fruit company seized by Guatemalan government from American corporation.


Guatemala
Guatemalahttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

http://www.lonelyplanet.com/mapimages/central_america/guatemala/guatemala.gif


Cubahttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • 1958 Fidel Castro overthrew corrupt Cuban dictator Batista. (ties to U.S. organized crime)

  • Eisenhower would not support Castro; CIA reported infiltration of movement by communist.

  • Castro seized U.S. property in Cuba; Eisenhower cut diplomatic ties and halted exports to Island.

  • Castro turned to Soviets for economic and military aid.


Leadership change
Leadership Changehttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

http://alocubano.com/batista8.gif

http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/forum/castro.jpg


Republic of cuba
Republic of Cubahttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

http://www.m-w.com/maps/images/maps/cuba_map.gif


The arms race
The Arms Racehttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • Arms Race – struggle to gain weapons superiority The Growth of Nuclear Arsenals

  • 1953 one year after U.S test of thermonuclear device, Soviets tested hydrogen device.

  • 1953 Eisenhower announced atoms for Peace Plan at UN.


First hydrogen test
First Hydrogen Testhttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • World’s nations work together under UN supervision to find peaceful uses for nuclear technology; Soviets refused to participate.

  • Eisenhower stepped up American weapons development program.

  • First hydrogen test in March 1954; 750 times more powerful than bomb dropped on Nagaski.


Results
Resultshttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • Japanese fisherman 90 miles away radiation burns-Island 200 miles away evacuated

  • Test revealed nuclear war threatened entire world with radioactive contamination.

http://www.gensuikin.org/panel/13.jpg


Brinkmanship
Brinkmanshiphttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • 1956 Secretary of State Dulles stated U.S. prepared to risk war to protect national interest.

  • Brinkmanship – ability to get to verge without getting into war


Cold war in the skies
Cold War in the Skieshttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • U.S. Airforce to carry hydrogen bombs to targets; Soviets could not match strength.

  • Developed ICBM’s – long-range rockets known as intercontinental ballistic missiles as primary delivery system

  • U.S worked to develop ICBM’s lagged behind Soviet’s in missile development due to dependence on conventional air power.


Icbm launch
ICBM launchhttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d5/Atlas-icbm-erector-scaled.jpg/300px-

Atlas-icbm-erector-scaled.jpg


Sputnik
Sputnikhttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • Technological gap startling in 1957; Soviets used one of rockets to launch Sputnik – first artificial satellite to orbit Earth.

  • Americans mortified – rocket could carry hydrogen bomb to U.S.

  • U.S. satellite rushed to launch before ready; crashed.


Sputnik1
Sputnikhttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/spacecraft/russia/r7-sputnik.jpg


U 2 incident
U-2 incidenthttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • U-2 incident – Soviets shot down U.S. spy plane over Soviet Union with guided missile.

  • It flew 15 miles high; we assumed it was immune to attack.

http://www.lswilson.ca/u2-3.jpg


Gary powers
Gary Powershttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

http://www.nndb.com/people/105/000057931/powers-crop.jpg

http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/lae/images/LE284L9.gif


Sentence
Sentencehttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

  • Francis Gary Powers: ImprisonedPowers spent almost 21 months in prison in the Soviet Union.

  • During that time, he openly kept a diary of his daily activities.

  • In November 1960 he began secretly writing a journal, which opens with a detailed recounting of the downing of his U-2.

  • When released, Powers hid the diary and journal in a rug he had embroidered while in prison and carried them out of the Soviet Union.

http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/lae/script/ss_flyers.htm


ad