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POWER NODES: DOWNTOWNS IN THE PERIPHERY Jim Simmons, Centre for the Study of Commercial Activity, Ryerson University, Toronto Canada. Outline: Three Stages of Commercial Structure A Focus on Power Retail Power Retail in Context Power Nodes The Implications and Future of Power Nodes.

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POWER NODES:

DOWNTOWNS IN THE PERIPHERY

Jim Simmons,

Centre for the Study of Commercial Activity,

Ryerson University, Toronto Canada.


  • Outline:

  • Three Stages of Commercial Structure

  • A Focus on Power Retail

  • Power Retail in Context

  • Power Nodes

  • The Implications and Future of Power Nodes


Three Stages of Commercial Structure

a) Traditional Retail

Small family-owned shops

Transit-oriented

Highly competitive, but inefficient


TRADITIONAL RETAIL STREET

Traditional Retail Photo


b) Shopping Centres

Large shops, retail chains

Single ownership, anchor store

Based on spatial and sectoral monopolies


MAP OF

SHOPPING CENTRE

Department Store Anchor


  • Power Retail

  • Huge stores, big box chains

  • Automobile access

  • Compete using price, selection and

  • brand marketing


POWER RETAIL: DEFINITIONS

Big Box Store: Retail outlets that are typically at least three of more times larger than other stores in the same retail sector, as measured by floor area.

Power Centre: A cluster of three or more big box retailers with a shared parking lot, and perhaps ancillary commercial services such as coffee shops.

Power Node: One power centre with additional big box stores and other power centres and malls within one kilometre radius, typically centred on a major intersection.


POWER NODE PHOTO

Power Centre Photo


Home Depot

Highway

Interchange

Supermarket

Parking Lot

RioCan BurlOak

Power Centre


THE GREATER TORONTO AREA

Population, 2001 5,297,000

Population, 2009 6,114,000

Population Change 817,000

Growth Rate 15.4 per cent (2001-2009)

Income per capita $31,000 (2006)

Market Income $172.5 billion (2006)

Population born

outside Canada 45.7 per cent (2006)


  • HOW BIG ARE THE POWER NODES?

  • The Biggest Nodes in the Greater Toronto Area

  • Floor Stores Big Power Shopping Growth Rate,

  • Area* Boxes CentresCentres 2001-2010

  • 1. 3,450,000 250 74 5 3 45.3%

  • 2. 2,837,000 506 49 4 7 56.1

  • 3. 2,112,000 296 40 3 4 56.4

  • * Floor Area in Square Feet


COMMERCIAL FACILITIES: GTA, 2010

Source: CSCA fieldwork


WHO SHOPS WHERE?

(Above Average Proportions)

Traditional Retail Apartment Dwellers

Small Families

Seniors/ Retirees

Transit Users

Shopping Centres Women

Young People

People not Working

Customers who Travel from Home

as Passengers


Power Retail Home Owners

Multi-Car Households

Men, Middle-aged

Blue Collar Occupations

Customers who Travel from

other Retail, as Drivers

Source: Centre for the Study of Commercial Activity,

using the Transportation for Tomorrow data.


The Future of Power Nodes

The Good:

Efficient (Inexpensive)

Popular with young families

Attracts retail investment

The Bad:

Low Density

Automobile-oriented

Weakens existing town centres

Unattractive to seniors, transit users

Weak Internal structure

Poor links with community


Vulnerable?

Environmental policies

Higher energy costs

Land use restrictions

Higher land costs

Demographic changes (aging, immigration)

On-line Competition


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