Basing tourism in aboriginal community defining success
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Basing Tourism in Aboriginal Community: Defining Success. TRMT 396 Lecture #3. Dan McDonald. Going beyond the economic…. Community-based tourism as growth ‘within’ context Control not just involvement Tourism as complimentary not substitutive

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Going beyond the economic
Going beyond the economic…

  • Community-based tourism as growth ‘within’ context

  • Control not just involvement

  • Tourism as complimentary not substitutive

  • Internal rather than external drivers ( or dual)

  • Participatory stakeholders not just beneficiaries

  • Long-term communal enterprise requires long-term commitment by all

Notzke, 2006

Notzke, 2006

Types of community based enterprises
Types of Community-based Enterprises

  • Totally owned and managed by community

  • Family or group initiatives in community

  • Joint venture with outside business partner

  • Is there an implied hierarchy based upon ‘control’?

  • Is do we assess solely on benefit?

Wood (2002) in Notzke

Issues in sustaining success
Issues in Sustaining Success

  • Connecting to market an issue – rural/remote↓ access to tools of tourism communication

  • Unequal distribution of opportunity & benefits

  • Vulnerability to external shocks, shifting trends

  • Dependence on continued external funding with limited local capital source

Bell s typology revised
Bell’s Typology Revised

Community Stewardship

Colton & Whitney-Squire (2010)

Bell s typology in detail
Bell’s Typology in Detail


Environmental Stewardship & Culturally Informed Management

The focus on aboriginal community
The focus on aboriginal community

  • Moving forward can’t be based on dependency

  • History of colonization led to dislocation from community history and weakened its bond

  • Revitalizing community often a process of remembering and re-membering

  • Going forward depends on strengthening relationships within & without

A picture of a vibrant community self conscious traditionalism
A picture of a Vibrant Community(self-conscious traditionalism)

  • Wholeness with Diversity

  • Shared Culture based on known tradition

  • Open Communication

  • Respect & Trust

  • Group maintenance & pride

  • Participatory & Consensus based decision making

  • Youth empowered

  • Extensive positive social, political & economic relationships with other communities

Alfred (2009)

Community based view of success factors
Community-based View of ‘Success’ Factors

  • Improved Livelihoods

  • Local Economic Development

  • Commercial Viability

  • Collective Benefits (social projects, infrastructure)

  • Social Capital & Empowerment (equity, decision making, local leadership, low impact)

  • Sense of Place (pride, revitalization, heritage)

  • Education

  • Conservation & Environment (sustainable use, monitoring, protection)

  • Tourism ( ↑experience, awareness)

  • Other (investment, sufficient time, replication)

Goodwin & Santilli (2009)

Pro poor does the metric fit
Pro-Poor: Does the Metric Fit?

  • “Growth is pro=poor if it enables poor people to realize the value of their asset base, which includes their culture”

  • Assets/Capital include:

    • Financial

    • Human

    • Natural

    • Physical

    • Social

Goodwin, 2007

Ways for tourism to reach aboriginal people who are poor
Ways for Tourism to Reach Aboriginal People who are Poor

  • Direct employment

  • Supplying goods & services

  • Direct sales to tourists

    • Often informal

  • Tourism micro-enterprises

  • Taxes/levies on tourism revenues

  • Voluntary giving by tourists and/or enterprises

    • $, goods, time, etc

  • Investment in infrastructure

Goodwin, 2007

The big picture
The Big Picture

  • “Sustaining economic development in Aboriginal communities requires a nation buildingapproach rather than a jobs and income approach” (Colton & Harris, 2007)

  • Links to the Harvard Project notion of the importance of sovereignty

  • Ultimate measure of success

Cultural centre case studies
Cultural Centre Case Studies

  • Quw’utsun Cultural & Conference Centre

  • Nuyumbalees Cultural Centre

  • U’Mista Cultural Centre

  • Squamish Lil’wat Cultural Centre

  • Nk’Mip Cultural Centre

Additional sources
Additional Sources

  • Alfred, T. (2009). Peace, Power and Righteousness: An Indigenous Manifesto. 2nd ed. Toronto, ON: Oxford University Press.