Strumentazione sub mm mm pre alma
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Strumentazione sub-mm/mm pre-ALMA. APEX SCUBA & SCUBA-2 IRAM SMA CSO OVRO, BIMA  CARMA NMA. APEX : A tacama P athfinder EX periment. Location: Llano de Chajnantor (Chile, 5000 m) Antenna modified copy of US ALMA prototype MPIfR=50% Onsala Sp. Obs=23% ESO=27%

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Strumentazione sub-mm/mm pre-ALMA

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Strumentazione sub mm mm pre alma

Strumentazione sub-mm/mm pre-ALMA

  • APEX

  • SCUBA & SCUBA-2

  • IRAM

  • SMA

  • CSO

  • OVRO, BIMA  CARMA

  • NMA

Riunione ALMA extragalattica


Apex a tacama p athfinder ex periment

APEX:Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment

Location:

Llano de Chajnantor

(Chile, 5000 m)

Antenna modified

copy of US ALMA

prototype

MPIfR=50%

Onsala Sp. Obs=23%

ESO=27%

PI: Karl Menten

PS: Peter Schilke

12 m diameter

300-1500 μm=

230-1200 GHz

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Instruments

Instruments

  • Bolometers arrays:

  • LABOCA (LArge BOlometer

  • CAmera):

  • 870 micron (345 GHz)

  • 295 channels

  • beam size=18 arcsec

  • FOV=11.4 arcmin

  • scanning and jiggling required

  • for fully sampled maps

  • 350 micron (850 GHz) array:

  • 37-channel bolometer (next)

  • 2 mm (150 GHz) array:

  • 3oo channel bol. for SZ (next)

  • Heterodyne receivers:

  • 230 GHz (1.3 mm)+340 GHz (0.9 mm)

  • receivers (from SEST)

  • 460 GHz (650 micron) 16-pixel

  • CHAMP array (from CSO)

  • 810 GHz (370 micron) receiver

  • (from JCMT)

  • Upgrade of CHAMP/dual receiver:

  • 650 and 810 GHz (next)

  • Experimental receivers above 1 THz

  • (next)

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Summary of the first generation facility instruments

Summary of the first generation facility instruments

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Strumentazione sub mm mm pre alma

Observing Time

Consortium:

The Astronomical Institute at the University of Bochum (AIRUB),

the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and

the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) and the

Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR)

 10% observing time for Chilean astronomers

Riunione ALMA extragalattica


Scuba the s ub mm c ommon u ser b olometer a rray

SCUBA: the Sub-mm Common-User Bolometer Array

  • 15-m diameter telescope (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, 4092 m)

  • INSTRUMENTS

  • Sub-mm bolometers:

  • Simultaneous observations at 850 μm (353 GHz, 37 bolometers) and

    450 μm (670 GHz, 91 bolometers)

  • Diameter f.o.v.=2.3 arcmin, beam=15-7 arcsec; cooled at 100 mK

  • UK, Canada, and The Netherlands collaboration, ~5-10% observing

    time to international programs.

  • Spectral line receivers:

  • 3 receivers: A3: 230 GHz – B3: 345 GHz – W: 460 and 690 GHz

    Heterodyne polarimeter:

  • all frequencies. Next: ROVER (2-3 mm window)

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The scuba 2 project

The SCUBA-2 project

  • SCUBA-2:

  • Transition Edge Sensor arrays: two dc-coupled, monolithic, filled

    arrays with a total of 10240 bolometers

  • Two focal-plane units  each unit has 4 sub-arrays with 40x32

    elements

  • Observing bands: 850 μm and 450 μm

  • F.O.V.=50 arcmin sq.=12xSCUBA

  • Sensitivity: a factor ~2-3 better than SCUBA

  • 1000 times faster than SCUBA to reach the same S/N

    for maps (fully sampled image in just one pointing)

  • Cooled at 120 mK  limited by the sky background photon noise

  • Delivered to the JCMT in Feb. 2006 (2 sub-arrays) and completed in

  • Nov. 2006 (all sub-arrays)

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Strumentazione sub mm mm pre alma

SCUBA-2 focal plane

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Iram i nstitut de r adio a stronomie m illimetrique

IRAM: Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique

  • French-German-Spanish collaboration

  • Two observatories

  • 30-m single-dish telescope on Pico Veleta (2850 m, Spain)

  • 6-antenna (15 m each) interferometer on the Plateau de Bure

  • (2550 m, France)

  • 1. 30-m Telescope

  • Bolometer systems:

  • MAMBO I: 1.2mm, beam=11 arcsec, 37 pixels

  • MAMBO II: 1.2mm, beam=11 arcsec, 117 pixels

    plus receivers in the range 80-272 GHz

  • 2. PdBI

  • Receiver at 1.3 mm (205-250 GHz), resolution~0.5 arcsec, f.o.v.=20”

  • Receiver at 3 mm (81-115 GHz)

Riunione ALMA extragalattica


Sma s ub m illimeter a rray

SMA: Sub-Millimeter Array

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory + Academia Sinica of

Astronomy and Astrophysics collaboration

8 x 6-m antenna interferometer on Mauna Kea (~4000m, Hawaii),

baseline as long as 500 m, ≈180-900 GHz band

2 simultaneous receivers/element

Receiver bands: 230, 345, 460, 690, and 850 GHz

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Cso c altech s ubmillimeter o bservatory

CSO: Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

  • 10.4-m diameter telescope (Mauna Kea, Hawaii)

  • INSTRUMENTS

  • Bolometer systems:

  • BOLOCAM: 115 working pixels, f.o.v.=8 arcmin (circular),

    beam size=30 arcsec (1.1 mm) and 60 arcsec (2.1 mm)

  • SHARC II: 12x32 array of bolometers at 350-450 μm

    f.o.v.=1.0x2.5 arcmin sq., beam~8.5 arcsec (350 μm)

    COMPLEMENTARY TO SCUBA

  • Heterodyne receivers:

  • 230, 345,490, and 665 GHz

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Ovro o wens v alley r adio o bservatory

OVRO: Owens Valley Radio Observatory

Caltech / National Science Foundation

6 x 10.4-m antenna interferometer (California, ~1200 m)

Beam-width=65” at 100 GHz

Receiver bands: 86-116 GHz(3 mm) and 210-270 GHz (1 mm)

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Bima b erkeley i llinois m aryland a ssociation

BIMA: Berkeley Illinois Maryland Association

10 x 6.1-m antenna interferometer

OVRO and BIMA have now ceased operations

CARMA

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Carma c ombined a rray for r esearch in m illimeter wave a stronomy

CARMA: Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy

CARMA=OVRO+BIMA on a site in Eastern California (~3000 m a.s.l.)

NSF + Universities

SPECIFICATIONS

ARRAY:15 antennas (6 x 10.4 m + 9 x 6.1 m), 772 m2 , 0.5 arcsec res.

at 230 GHz

RECEIVERS:115, 230, and 345 GHz

Fully operational: end of 2005?

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Nma n obeyama m illimeter a rray

NMA: Nobeyama Millimeter Array

ARRAY:6 x 10m antennas

BANDS:3 mm (85-116 GHz), 2 mm (126-152 GHz), and 1 mm

(213-237 GHz)

resolution down to 1 arcsec

NMA plus the 45 m single-dish telescope  RAINBOW

(f.o.v.=20 arcsec at 3 mm)

10 m sub-mm

ASTE

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If you have questions

if you have questions…

I’m not sure I can answer …

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