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Chapter 1 The Ancient Greeks. The First Civilizations. Chapter Introduction Section 1 Early Humans Section 2 Mesopotamian Civilization Section 3 The First Empires Reading Review Chapter Assessment. Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. The First Civilizations.

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Chapter 1 The Ancient Greeks

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Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Chapter 1

The Ancient Greeks


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Chapter Introduction

Section 1 Early Humans

Section 2 Mesopotamian

Civilization

Section 3 The First Empires

Reading Review

Chapter Assessment

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Chapter Objectives

  • Explain how learning to farm changed the way early peoples lived. 

  • Describe the development of the first major civilizations in Mesopotamia’s river valleys. 

  • Describe the rise and fall of the Assyrian and Chaldean Empires.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Get Ready to Read

Section Overview

This section describes the world’s earliest humans and relates their change from nomadic hunters to farmers.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Focusing on the Main Ideas

  • Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive. 

  • In the Neolithic Age, people started farming, building communities, producing goods, and trading.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Locating Places

  • Jericho (JEHR•ih•KOH) 

  • Çatal Hüyük (chah•TAHL hoo•YOOK)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Building Your Vocabulary

  • historian (hih•STOHR•ee•uhn) 

  • archaeologist (AHR•kee•AH•luh•jihst) 

  • artifact (AHR•tih•FAKT) 

  • fossil (FAH•suhl) 

  • anthropologist (AN•thruh•PAH•luh•jihst) 

  • nomad (NOH•MAD)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Building Your Vocabulary

  • technology (tehk•NAH•luh•jee) 

  • domesticate (duh•MEHS•tih•KAYT) 

  • specialization (SPEH•shuh•luh•ZAY•shuhn)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Reading Strategy

Determine Cause and Effect Draw a diagram like the one on page 8 of your textbook. Use it to explain how early humans adapted to their environment.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Early Humans

  • History is the story of humans in the past, and historians are the people who study and write about humans of the past. 

  • Archaeologists hunt for evidence buried in the ground.

(pages 9–11)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Early Humans

(pages 9–11)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Early Humans (cont.)

  • Anthropologists study how humans developed and related to each other. 

  • The early period of human history is called the Stone Age. 

  • The earliest part of the Stone Age is called the Paleolithic period. 

  • Paleolithic people were nomads, traveling from place to place to hunt and search for food.

(pages 9–11)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Early Humans (cont.)

  • Paleolithic women cared for children and gathered berries, nuts, and grains. 

  • Paleolithic men hunted animals using clubs, spears, traps, and bows and arrows. 

  • Paleolithic people adapted to their environment.

(pages 9–11)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Early Humans (cont.)

  • Those in warm climates wore little clothing and had little need for shelter. 

  • Those in cold climates used caves for shelter. 

  • Over time, they learned to create shelters from animal hides and wooden poles.

(pages 9–11)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Early Humans (cont.)

  • Paleolithic people discovered fire, which kept them warm, lit the darkness, and cooked food. 

  • Long periods of extreme cold are called the Ice Ages. 

  • During the Ice Ages, thick sheets of ice covered parts of Europe, Asia, and North America.

(pages 9–11)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Early Humans (cont.)

  • Paleolithic people developed spoken language and expressed themselves through art, which may have had religious meaning. 

  • During this time, humans created tools such as spears and hand axes using stone called flint.

(pages 9–11)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

How did spoken language help the Paleolithic people?

Language made it easier for people to work together and pass on knowledge.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Neolithic Times

  • In the beginning of the Neolithic Age, people began to domesticate, or tame, animals. 

  • Domesticated animals carried goods and provided meat, milk, and wool.

  • People in different parts of the world began growing crops about the same time.

  • Historians call this change the farming revolution.

(pages 13–15)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Neolithic Times (cont.)

  • Because farmers needed to stay close to their fields, they built permanent homes in villages. 

  • One of the oldest villages is Jericho in present-day Israel and Jordan.

  • Another Neolithic village is Çatal Hüyük in present-day Turkey.

  • Permanent villages provided people with security and steady food.

(pages 13–15)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Neolithic Times (cont.)

  • The surplus food led to a larger population. 

  • Not all people in a village were farmers.

  • Some made pottery, mats, and cloth.

  • They traded these goods for things they did not have.

(pages 13–15)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Neolithic Times (cont.)

  • People continued to create new technology.

  • They created better farming tools and began working with metal, copper, and tin.

  • They also began working with bronze.

(pages 13–15)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Why was farming important to the Neolithic people?

Farming allowed people to settle in one place, and it provided a steady food supply.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Who are archaeologists and what do they study?

Archaeologists are scientists who hunt for, dig up, and study artifacts.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

How did domesticating animals help the Neolithic people?

Animals supplied meat, milk, and wool. They also carried goods and pulled carts.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Explain Why were Paleolithic people nomads?

They moved around to hunt animals and gather other foods.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Compare Compare the technology of the Paleolithic Age with that of the Neolithic Age?

Paleolithic: stone, bone, and wooden tools and weapons;

Neolithic: metal tools and weapons


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Analyze Why was the ability to make a fire so important?

Fire kept humans warm, scared animals away, and was used to cook food.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Summarize the impact of farming on the human race.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Get Ready to Read

Section Overview

This section describes Mesopotamia, one of the regions where the world’s earliest civilizations developed.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Focusing on the Main Ideas

  • Civilization in Mesopotamia began in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. 

  • Sumerians invented writing and made other important contributions to later peoples. 

  • Sumerian city-states lost power when they were conquered by outsiders.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Locating Places

  • Tigris River (TY•gruhs) 

  • Euphrates River (yu•FRAY•teez) 

  • Mesopotamia

  • (MEH•suh•puh•TAY•mee•uh) 

  • Sumer (SOO•muhr) 

  • Babylon (BA•buh•luhn)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Meeting People

  • Sargon (SAHR•GAHN)

  • Hammurabi (HA•muh•RAH•bee)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Building Your Vocabulary

  • civilization (SIH•vuh•luh•ZAY•shuhn) 

  • irrigation (IHR•uh•GAY•shuhn)

  • city-state

  • artisan (AHR•tuh•zuhn) 

  • cuneiform (kyoo•NEE•uh•FAWRM) 

  • scribe (SKRYB) 

  • empire (EHM•PYR)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Reading Strategy

Sequencing Information Use a diagram like the one on page 16 of your textbook, to show how the first empire in Mesopotamia came about.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Mesopotamia’s Civilization

  • Civilizations are complex societies with cities, governments, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system. 

  • Rivers were important because they made for good farming conditions. 

  • They also made it easy for people to travel and trade. 

  • Governments were formed because someone had to make plans and decisions for the common good.

(pages 17–20)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.)

  • Mesopotamia is a flat plain bounded by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. 

  • Floods in Mesopotamia were frequent and unpredictable. 

  • Farmers learned to control the rivers with dams and channels. 

  • They also used the rivers to irrigate, or water, their crops.

(pages 17–20)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.)

  • Many cities formed in a southern region of Mesopotamia known as Sumer. 

  • Sumerian cities were city-states, with their own governments. 

  • Sumerian cities often fought each other. 

  • To protect themselves, the city-states built walls around themselves.

(pages 17–20)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.)

  • Sumerians believed in many gods. 

  • Each city-state had a ziggurat, or grand temple, to honor the gods.

(pages 17–20)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.)

  • Most Sumerians were farmers, but some were artisans, or skilled workers. 

  • Others were merchants and traders. 

  • Sumerian city-states had three classes. 

  • The upper class consisted of kings, priests, and government officials.

  • The middle class consisted of artisans, merchants, fishers, and farmers.

(pages 17–20)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.)

  • The lower class consisted of slaves.

(pages 17–20)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

What effect did irrigation have on the people of Mesopotamia?

Irrigation allowed farmers to grow plenty of food. More food meant more people could be fed, so the population grew.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

A Skilled People

  • Mesopotamia has been called the cradle of civilization because of the influence of Sumerian ideas on other areas.

  • Writing helps people keep records and pass on ideas. 

  • Sumerians developed a writing system called cuneiform.

  • Only a few people, called scribes, learned to write.

(pages 20–21)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

A Skilled People (cont.)

  • The Sumerians also produced the oldest known story, the Epic ofGilgamesh.

  • The Sumerians also invented new technology such as the wagon wheel, the sailboat, and the plow. 

  • The Sumerians developed many mathematical ideas, including geometry, a number system based on 60, and a 12-month calendar.

(pages 20–21)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Why did Sumerians study the skies?

The locations of the planets and stars guided the Sumerians’ farming and festivals.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Sargon and Hammurabi

  • Sargon, the king of the Akkadians, conquered all of Mesopotamia and set up the world’s first empire. 

  • An empire is a group of many different lands under one ruler. 

  • After Sargon, another group of people became powerful. 

  • They built the city of Babylon on the Euphrates River.

(page 23)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Sargon and Hammurabi (cont.)

  • The Babylonian king, Hammurabi, conquered lands north and south of Babylon to create the Babylonian Empire. 

  • The Code of Hammurabi was a collection of laws covering crimes, farming, business activities, and marriage and family. 

  • Many punishments in the code were cruel, but the code was an important step in the development of a justice system.

(page 23)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

What were some of the benefits of living in Hammurabi’s empire? What were some of the drawbacks?

Benefits: Living in a large, powerful empire helps keep enemies from taking over the land; Hammurabi’s code helped keep people from committing crimes against one another. Drawbacks: Hammurabi’s code had cruel punishments; people were governed by one person, Hammurabi, instead of living in a representative government.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

What is civilization?

a complex society with cities, an organized government, art, religion, a system of writing, and class divisions


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

What was the Code of Hammurabi?

a set of laws that the Babylonian leader Hammurabi established for his empire


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Geography Skills How was the geography of Mesopotamia suited for the growth of population and creation of a civilization?

Mesopotamia was located in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. These rivers often flooded, leaving behind rich soil for farming, which made it easier to feed large numbers of people.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Science Link Why did the Sumerians record the positions of stars and planets and develop a calendar?

to learn the best times to plant crops and hold religious festivals


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Persuasive Writing Imagine you are living in a city-state in ancient Sumer. Write a letter to a friend describing which Mesopotamian idea or invention you believe will be the most important to humanity.

Answers will vary.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Review the Sumerian technologies that changed the world.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

Get Ready to Read

Section Overview

This section discusses the Assyrian and Chaldean Empires.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Focusing on the Main Ideas

  • Assyria’s military power and well organized government helped it build a vast empire in Mesopotamia by 650 B.C. 

  • The Chaldean Empire built important landmarks in Babylon and developed the first calendar with a seven-day week.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Locating Places

  • Assyria (uh•SIHR•ee•uh)

  • Persian Gulf (PUHR•zhuhn) 

  • Nineveh (NIH•nuh•vuh) 

  • Hanging Gardens 

Meeting People

  • Nebuchadnezzar

  • (NEH•byuh•kuhd•NEH•zuhr)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Building Your Vocabulary

  • province (PRAH•vuhns) 

  • caravan (KAR•uh•VAN) 

  • astronomer (uh•STRAH•nuh•muhr) 

Reading Strategy

Compare and Contrast Complete a Venn diagram like the one on page 26 of your textbook. List the similarities and differences between the Assyrian Empire and the Chaldean Empire.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

The Assyrians

  • The Assyrian empire arose about 1,000 years after the rule of Hammurabi.

  • The Assyrian army was the first large army to use iron weapons. 

  • Their weapons were stronger than those of copper and tin.

(pages 27–28)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

The Assyrians (cont.)

  • They fought with spears, daggers, bows and arrows, chariots and soldiers on horseback.

(pages 27–28)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

The Assyrians (cont.)

  • The capital of the Assyrian empire was Nineveh. 

  • The empire was divided into provinces, which are political districts. 

  • Each province was governed by an official who collected taxes and enforced laws.

(pages 27–28)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

The Assyrians (cont.)

  • The Assyrians built large temples and palaces, with statues and wall carvings. 

  • One of the first libraries was in Nineveh and held 25,000 tablets of stories and songs. 

  • People began to rebel because of Assyria’s cruel treatment. 

  • The Chaldeans rebelled and took control of Nineveh in 612 B.C.

(pages 27–28)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

How were the Assyrians like other Mesopotamians?

The Assyrians and the Mesopotamians built temples and palaces. Both used art and writing.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

The Chaldeans

  • Nebuchadnezzar was the king of the Chaldeans. 

  • The Chaldeans, who were descendents of Babylonians, rebuilt Babylon. 

  • The city became the center of the Chaldeans’ empire. 

  • The city was surrounded by a huge wall. Inside the wall were palaces, temples, and a huge ziggurat.

(pages 29–30)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

The Chaldeans (cont.)

  • Nebechadnezzar ordered the Hanging Gardens to be built for his wife, who missed her green, mountainous homeland. 

  • The Hanging Gardens were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

(pages 29–30)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

The Chaldeans (cont.)

  • The Chaldeans were merchants, artisans, and traders. 

  • Babylon was on a major trade route and profited from trade.

(pages 29–30)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

The Chaldeans (cont.)

  • The Chaldeans studied the sky to understand the gods. 

  • Their astronomers (people who study the heavenly bodies) mapped the stars, planets, and phases of the moon. 

  • The Chaldeans lost control of their empire to the Persians.

(pages 29–30)


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

What made Babylon the world’s richest city?

Being on a major trade route meant merchants and artisans benefited from trade. The city also had beautiful structures, such as the Hanging Gardens and the Ishtar Gate.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

Why was the Assyrian army a powerful fighting force?

It had a well-organized army with advanced weapons.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

What were some of the accomplishments of Chaldean astronomers?

They mapped stars, planets, and phases of the moon and created the sundial and seven-day week.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

Analyze How did the Assyrians set up a well organized government?

They divided the empire into provinces, and chose provincial officials to collect taxes and enforce laws.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

Conclude Why do you think the Assyrians took conquered peoples from their lands and moved them to other places?

Possible answer: It would make it more difficult for conquered people to rise up against the Assyrians.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

Descriptive Writing Write a paragraph that might be found in a travel brochure describing the beauty of ancient Babylon.

Answers will vary.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

Science Link What different types of knowledge and skills would the Babylonians need to build the Hanging Gardens?

Answers will vary.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

Describe two main points about the Assyrians and Chaldeans.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Section 1: Early Humans

Focusing on the Main Ideas

  • Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive.

  • In the Neolithic Age, people started farming, building communities, producing goods, and trading.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Section 2: Mesopotamian Civilization

Focusing on the Main Ideas

  • Civilization in Mesopotamia began in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. 

  • Sumerians invented writing and made other important contributions to later peoples. 

  • Sumerian city-states lost power when they were conquered by outsiders.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Section 3: The First Empires

Focusing on the Main Ideas

  • Assyria’s military power and well-organized government helped it build a vast empire in Mesopotamia by 650 B.C.

  • The Chaldean Empire built important landmarks in Babylon and developed the first calendar with a seven-day week.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Review Vocabulary

Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence.

A.historians

B.provinces

C.empire

D.city-state

E.scribe

E

__ 1.A ___ kept records in cuneiform.

__ 2.An ___ is a group of many different lands under one ruler.

__ 3.Assyrian kings divided their empire into political districts called ___.

C

B


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Review Vocabulary

Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence.

A.historians

B.provinces

C.empire

D.city-state

E.scribe

A

__ 4.___ are people who study and write about the human past.

__ 5.A ___ had its own government and was not part of any larger unit.

D


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Review Main Ideas

Section 1 Early Humans

How did Paleolithic people adapt to their environment?

They adapted to the environment by making tools and clothes and by using fire.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Review Main Ideas

Section 1 Early Humans

What were the major differences between people who lived in the Paleolithic period and those who lived in the Neolithic period?

People who lived in the Paleolithic period were hunters and gatherers. Neolithic people were farmers and traders who built communities.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Review Main Ideas

Section 2 Mesopotamian Civilization

Where were the first civilizations in Mesopotamia?

in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Review Main Ideas

Section 2 Mesopotamian Civilization

How did Sumerian city-states lose power?

Conflicts weakened them and they became vulnerable to attacks by outsiders.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Review Main Ideas

Section 3 The First Empires

What helped Assyria build an empire in Mesopotamia?

its military power and well organized government


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Review Main Ideas

Section 3 The First Empires

What scientific advancement did the Chaldeans make?

They mapped the stars, planets, and phases of the moon; created the sundial; and used the seven-day week.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Explain Why do you think Mesopotamia is sometimes called the “cradle of civilization”?

Some of the earliest known civilizations arose in Mesopotamia and had a great effect on world history.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Analyze Why was the switch from hunting and gathering to farming important enough to be called the farming revolution?

Farming allowed early humans to settle into villages, which was a new way of living that led to the rise of civilizations.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Describe What rights did women have in the city-states of Sumer?

They could buy and sell property and run businesses.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Predict How successful do you think the Assyrian army would have been if it had not learned how to strengthen iron?

Answers will vary. You should note that the Assyrians still would have been powerful because of their strategies and ruthlessness.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter.

Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 1-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go tohttp://www.jat.glencoe.com


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Maps

The Rise of Farming Communities 7000–2000 B.C.

Ancient Mesopotamia

Assyrian Empire

Chart

Comparing the Neolithic and Paleolithic Ages

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Assyrian Empire


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans

Scientists believe early humans made tools from other materials besides stone. They probably used wooden sticks to dig holes and used bark from trees to make containers. Unlike stone, these organic materials decay, so remnants from the early humans are unavailable.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization

Scientists at the University of Pennsylvania spent 30 years developing the first Sumerian language dictionary.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires

The Chaldeans in today’s Iraq still speak Aramaic, the language of ancient Babylon.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Reading Social Studies

Learn It!

Get Ready to Read!

Before you read, take time to preview the chapter. This will give you a head start on what you are about to learn. Follow the steps on the next slide to help you quickly read, or skim, Section 1 on page 9 of your textbook.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Reading Social Studies

1. Read the main headings in large red type. They show the main topics covered in the section or chapter.

  • Early Humans

  • Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive.

  • Reading Focus What do you view as the greatest human achievement? Sending people to the moon, perhaps, or inventing the computer? Read to learn about the accomplishments of people during the Paleolithic Age. _________________________

  • History is the story of humans…

  • Tools of Discovery

2. The under each main head tells you the “big picture.” It summarizes the main point of what you are about to read.

Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Reading Social Studies

  • Early Humans

  • Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive.

  • Reading Focus What do you view as the greatest human achievement? Sending people to the moon, perhaps, or inventing the computer? Read to learn about the accomplishments of people during the Paleolithic Age. _________________________

  • History is the story of humans…

  • Tools of Discovery

3. The ReadingFocus helps you to make a connection between what you might already know and what you are about to read.

4. Under each main head, read the subheads in blue type. Subheads break down each main topic into smaller topics.

Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Reading Social Studies

  • Early Humans

  • Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive.

  • Reading Focus What do you view as the greatest human achievement? Sending people to the moon, perhaps, or inventing the computer? Read to learn about the accomplishments of people during the Paleolithic Age. _________________________

  • History is the story of humans…

  • Tools of Discovery

Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Reading Social Studies

Practice It!

Preview by Skimming

Skim all of the main heads and main ideas in Section 3, starting on page 26 of your textbook. Then in small groups, discuss the questions below. 

  • Which part of this section do you think will be most interesting to you? 

  • What do you think will be covered in Section 3 that was not covered in Section 2?

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Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Reading Social Studies

Practice It!

Preview by Skimming

Skim all of the main heads and main ideas in Section 3, starting on page 26 of your textbook. Then in small groups, discuss the questions below. 

  • Are there any words in the Main Ideas that you do not know how to pronounce? 

  • Choose one of the Reading Focus questions to discuss in your group.

Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Civilizations

Introduction


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Early Humans


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Mesopotamian Civilization


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

The First Empires


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Paleolithic Cave Paintings


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Science and Inventions

Tools

One of the most important advances of prehistoric people was the creation of stone tools. Tools made hunting, gathering, building shelter, and making clothing much easier. The first tools were made of stones. Early humans quickly learned that grinding, breaking, and shaping the stones to create sharp edges made them more useful. As technology advanced, people began making specific tools such as food choppers, meat scrapers, and spear points. In time, people learned that hitting a stone in a particular way would produce a flake—a long, sharp chip. Flakes were similar to knives in the way they were used.


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Connecting to the Past

1.Why do you think early people chose stones to make their first tools?

Stones were easy to fashion into tools.

2.How were flakes created?

by chipping stones pieces until they flaked into the right shape

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Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Ötzi the Iceman

c. 3300 B.C


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Hammurabi

Reigned c. 1792–1750 B.C


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Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1–1

Chapter 1


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1–2

Chapter 1


Chapter 1 the ancient greeks

Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1–3

Chapter 1


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