Restoration and the 18 th century
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Restoration and the 18 th Century. The “Turbulent Time’s” up cycle. Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) practically invented the modern realistic novel. There are seven groups of English Society The Great, who live profusely. The Rich, who live very plentifully. The Middle Sort, who live well.

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Restoration and the 18 th Century

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Restoration and the 18 th century

Restoration and the 18th Century

The “Turbulent Time’s” up cycle


Daniel defoe 1660 1731 practically invented the modern realistic novel

Daniel Defoe (1660-1731)practically invented the modern realistic novel

There are seven groups of English Society

The Great, who live profusely.

The Rich, who live very plentifully.

The Middle Sort, who live well.

The Working Trades, who labor hard, but feel no want.

The Country People, Farmers, etc., who fare indifferently

The Poor, that fare hard.

The Miserable, that really pinch and suffer want

What does this tell you about the society of the time period?

Is this societal description transcendent?


Clearly labels were important

Clearly labels were important

How is this seen in the quarelle de femes?


Review

Review

What Monarch had his head chopped off?

Charles I

Who took over the government after this monarch?

Oliver Cromwell

Who succeeded the “Lord Protector” and re-established the monarchy in 1660?

Charles II


Historical and literary connections

Historical and Literary connections

How did Milton use his society as inspiration for Paradise Lost?


A clash of styles

A Clash of Styles

ORNATE

Cavaliers—supported Charles I and were opposed by the Puritans

Dressed elegantly, ate with gusto, attended the theater, lived a high life

PLAIN

Dressed and ate plainly, thought the theater was wicked, lived God-fearing, yet somewhat dull lives

Established a church dictatorship in England under Cromwell


Royal inheritance reestablished 1660

Royal InheritanceReestablished 1660

“Lord Protector” Cromwell 1653-1658


Cromwell puritans

Cromwell & Puritans

Cromwell established a religious dictatorship.

Puritanical reign

Puritans fled at the death of Cromwell…to escape persecution of the newly established Monarchy

To the “new world” (1658)

1692-1693—what happens in Salem?


Using at least 1 of your new vocabulary words

Using at least 1 of your new vocabulary words…

Explain how this picture is a parody.

What is it mocking?

What change is it calling for?

The Original


The 18 th century

The 18thCentury

There were many closer heirs to Anne, but they were all Catholic; As a result, George’s reign was questioned by the Catholics; deposing was attempted and failed.


Why would all these historical changes and events inspire people to use satire

Why would all these historical changes and events inspire people to use satire?

Upset

Tired

Disillusioned


More trouble change

More Trouble & Change

After 20 years of civil war, the English people were wary and exhausted

By 1700…

Plague that claimed many—including Queen Mary

Fire (2/3 of Londoners are homeless)

1775—colonies rebelled against British Rule and won their freedom

July 4, 1776 “Nothing happened today”—George III

Calm finally emerges toward the end and the British Military is rested

Colonies established around the globe


Label me 1660 1800

Label me? 1660-1800

“The Augustan Age, The Neoclassical period, The Enlightenment, The Age of Reason”

All apply to some, none apply to all


Augustan neoclassical age

Augustan & Neoclassical Age

Comparisons to Rome “Augustus” (63 BC- 14AD) restored peace after death of Caesar

Restoration of the King, England likened itself to Augustan Rome

A period of calm after a period of turmoil

Literature and arts fashion themselves after the Latin Classics and Latin Classics are more well known than contemporary or English works


Reason and enlightenment

Reason and Enlightenment

Asking How?

In Macbeth they noticed the unnatural lack of sunlight—why did this happen? They ask. They did not ask HOW…

If they did—how could science explain it?

Advance in science as a result


Ironically

Ironically

While people were being enlightened they were also being repressed

Religion determined politics

Reestablished Anglican church “official religion” of country to this day

Outlaw of Puritan and Independent sects (caused much of the uproar during the previous years)

Persecution ensues


Pouring into north america

Pouring into North America

What were they seeking?

Freedom from turbulence—political and religious

The “dream”—making money and increasing their standing in by selling and trading furs, tobacco, logs and slaves.


Daniel defoe 1660 1731 practically invented the modern realistic novel1

Daniel Defoe (1660-1731)practically invented the modern realistic novel

There are seven groups of English Society

The Great, who live profusely.

The Rich, who live very plentifully.

The Middle Sort, who live well.

The Working Trades, who labor hard, but feel no want.

The Country People, Farmers, etc., who fare indifferently

The Poor, that fare hard.

The Miserable, that really pinch and suffer want


Age of satire the age of pope

Age of SatireThe Age of Pope

Attacks on immorality and Bad Taste

Alexander Pope (1668-1744) & Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)


An essay on man and the rape of the lock

“An Essay on Man” and “The Rape of the Lock”

Alexander Pope1711; 1712-1714


Who is pope

Who is Pope?

  • Brilliant Satirist—writes in verse

  • Physical Problems:

    • Tuberculosis of the bone, or Pott’s disease, Pope stood only about four and a half feet tall

  • Roman Catholic family : Persecuted minority.

    • King James II ousted1688: English Catholics could not legally vote, hold office, attend a university, or live within ten miles of London.

      • What would this kind of repression lead to?


Scriblerus club

Scriblerus Club

  • Purpose: to ridicule “false tastes in learning.”

  • Members included: Swift and Pope!

  • Wined, dined, and joked with one another

  • Probably inspired Swift’s masterwork Gulliver’s Travels


An essay on man

“An Essay on Man”

  • Purpose: caution against intellectual pride

    • To Teach?

    • To Persuade?

    • To Entertain?

    • To inform?


An essay on man1

“An Essay on Man”

  • Means:

    • describing the uncertain “middle state”

    • Heroic Couplets


Heroic couplets page 522 523

Heroic Couplets page 522-523

  • Couplet: 2 rhymed lines

  • Triplet: 3 rhymed lines

  • Iambic pentameter: 5 iambs (unstressed; stressed)

  • Closed: thought expressed in a complete sentence

With your partner complete number 2-3 on page 523 after reading all the heroic couplets.


An essay on man2

“An Essay on Man”

  • By way of: Antithesis: contrasting opposites

    • Now complete number 6 on page 523 with your partner.


An essay on man page 524 interpretation

“An Essay on Man” page 524 Interpretation

  • Man should NOT study

    • God

  • Man should study

    • Man

  • What is man struggling with?

  • Born but to die means?

  • Reasoning but to err? Does this support rationiscapax?

  • How can one be Lord and prey?

  • What connection can you make to the idea that man is “The glory, jest, and riddle of the world?


An essay on man page 524 antithesis

“An Essay on Man” page 524 Antithesis

  • Skeptic’s side; stoic’s pride

  • Act; rest

  • Born; die

  • Reasoning; err

  • Abused; disabuse

  • Half to rise; half to fall

  • Lord of all things; prey to all

  • Truth; error


Pope s satire

Pope’s Satire

  • Rape of the Lock

  • Mock epic based on true events

  • Petre family and the Fermor family dispute over a lock of hair is spun into a fantastical adventure tale


Mock epic

Mock Epic

  • A Long, humorous narrative poem that treats a trivial subject in the grand style of a true epic like Homer’s Iliad or Milton’sParadise Lost.

  • For example, in The Rape of the Lock, Pope applies to the theft of a lady’s lock of hair such epic elements as these:

    • Boasting speeches of heroes and heroines

    • Elaborate descriptions of warriors and their weapons

    • Involvement of gods and goddesses in the action

    • Epic similes, or elaborate comparisons in the style of Homer that sometimes use the words like, as, or so

  • Antithesis—placing side by side, and in similar grammatical structures, strongly contrasting words, clauses, sentences, or ideas.


Pope s form

Pope’s Form

  • Heroic Couplet:

    • 2 rhymed lines of iambic pentamenter

    • “closed” if they represent a complete sentence.

  • Epic elements

    • Boasting speeches of heroes and heroines

    • Elaborate descriptions of warriors and their weapons

    • Involvement of gods and goddesses in the action

    • Epic similes, or elaborate comparisons in the style of Homer that sometimes use the words like, as, or so


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