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The Process of Birth. Introduction Intrapartum\Perinatal Period. Physiologic Effects of Birth/Adaptation to Labor Maternal Response-Alterations in:. Cardiovascular Hemopoietic System Respiratory System Renal system Integumentary System Neurologic System G.I. System Endocrine System

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The Process of Birth

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The process of birth

The Process of Birth


Intrapartum\Perinatal Period

Physiologic effects of birth adaptation to labor maternal response alterations in

Physiologic Effects of Birth/Adaptation to LaborMaternal Response-Alterations in:

  • Cardiovascular

  • Hemopoietic System

  • Respiratory System

  • Renal system

  • Integumentary System

  • Neurologic System

  • G.I. System

  • Endocrine System

  • Reproductive System

The process of birth

Cervical Dilation

B fetal response to mother s labor

B. Fetal Response to Mother’s Labor:

  • Fetal Heart Rate:

  • Respiratory Rate

  • Fetal Circulation

The process of birth

Placental Circulation

Ii components of the birth process critical factors in labor

II. Components of The Birth ProcessCritical Factors in Labor

  • The Five P’s:

  • 1.The Powers

  • 2. The Passage

  • 3. The Passenger

  • 4. Mother’s position

  • 5. The Psyche



  • 1. Primary: Uterine Contractions

  • 2. Secondary:

  • Abdominal and Intercostal Muscles

  • The Perineal Muscles

The process of birth

Uterine Muscle Layers

Uterine response

Uterine Response

Contractions Measured in:

  • Frequency

  • Duration

  • Intensity

  • Phases of Contractions:

  • Increment

  • Acme

  • Decrement

The process of birth

Phases of Contractions

B passage the pelvis

1. Landmarks:

The True Pelvis

( divided into 3 sections)




2. Types of Pelvises





3. Significant Measurement:

Bi-ischial diameter

B. Passage (The Pelvis)

The process of birth

Female Pelvis

The process of birth

Pelvic Measurements

The process of birth

Comparisons of Pelvises

Gynecoid Android Anthropoid Platypelloid

50% 20% 25% 05%

C passenger baby

C. Passenger ( Baby!)

  • 1. Fetal head/Fontanels

    a. Posterior

    b. Anterior

    c. Bi-Parietal Measurement

  • 2. Fetal Presentation

    a. Cephalic

    b. Breech

    c. Transverse

Passenger continued

Fetal Lie

Fetal Attitude

Fetal station

Fetal Position:

a. side of Pelvis: Referred to as: (R or L)

b. Fetal Presenting Part Referred to as:( O,S,M or A)

c. Anterior, Posterior or Transverse Lie : Referred to as:( A, P or T)

Passenger (Continued)

The process of birth

Fetal Station

Mother s position in labor

Mother’s Position in Labor

  • Affects anatomical and physiologic adaptation to labor( standing , walking, sitting or squatting)

  • Gravity can assist in the decent of baby/increases effacement and dilation of cervix

  • Ferguson’s reflex

Mother s psyche

Mother’s Psyche !

Labor and delivery

Labor and Delivery

  • III. Normal Labor

  • A. Premonitory Signs of Labor

  • 1. Braxton Hicks Contractions

  • 2. Cervical Changes

  • 3.Bloody Show

  • 4.Rupture of Membrane

  • 5. Sudden Burst of Energy

True vs false labor characteristics

False Labor

- no change in cervix

-discomfort in low abdomen and groin

-irregular contractions

-no increase in frequency or intensity of contractions

True Labor

Progressive cervical dilatation and effacement

Discomfort in back and abdomen

Contractions occur at regular intervals

Progressive increase in frequency and intensity of contractions

True vs. False LaborCharacteristics

C initial maternal assessments during labor

1.PrenatalHistory ie: Gestational Age? wt.gain,EDD/EDC, Lab Values, Bld.Type

2.Risk Factors: Rubella status; STD’s, Group B Step. Status

3.Prior Obstetrical

History( GTPAL)

4. Asses Labor Progress

5.?Education Preparation

6. Educational needs of this Mother/Family

7. ? Support System

8.Maternal Allergies?

9. Base line Vital Signs

10. Status of the Baby

C. Initial Maternal Assessments During Labor

E m e c h a n i s m o f l a b o r

E. Mechanism of Labor

  • Cardinal Movements of the baby

  • 1. Engagement, Descent, Flexion

  • 2.Internal Rotation

  • 3.Extention-Beginning

  • 4.Extention Complete

  • 5.External Rotation(Restitution)

  • 6.External Rotation(Shoulder Rotation)

  • 7.Expulsion

Four stages of labor

1.First Stage (Dilation Stage)

Divided into three phases:

a. latent

b. active

c. transition

2.Second Stage (Stage of Expulsion)

3. Third Stage (Placental Stage)

4. Fourth Stage (Recovery Stage)

Four Stages of Labor

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