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Who is feeding our children?. A glimpse into the role of food marketing and the childhood obesity epidemic in Washtenaw County, Michigan. Adult Obesity Trends Nationwide.

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who is feeding our children

Who is feeding our children?

A glimpse into the role of food marketing and the childhood obesity epidemic in Washtenaw County, Michigan

adult obesity trends nationwide
Adult Obesity Trends Nationwide

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention & Health Promotion Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System available at: http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss/Trends/TrendData.asp

child obesity trends nationwide
Child Obesity Trends Nationwide
  • 31% of American children are at risk for becoming overweight or are overweight.
  • The number of children who are overweight has tripled since 19801.
  • In 1978, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proposed a rulemaking process that would either restrict or ban advertising to young children.
  • Congress barred any advertising rule process which infringed on First Amendment Rights, and the FTC terminated the rulemaking process in 19812.
child advertising trends nationwide
Child Advertising Trends Nationwide
  • FTC’s 2007 research just out
    • Children between 2-11 years old saw ~5,500 food ads in 2004.
      • 9% decrease from 1977, when children watched 6,100
    • ½ of the food advertising children saw in 2004 was during kids shows.
      • 2X the level of 1977

The Associated Press. (2007, June 1). Junk food ads increasing on kids’ shows: Children saw twice as many spots during programming in 2004 than 1977. MSNBC.com. Retrieved June 10, 2007, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/1898923.

adult obesity trends in michigan
Adult Obesity Trends in Michigan

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention & Health Promotion Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System available at: http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss/Trends/TrendData.asp

slide6

Child Obesity Trends in Michigan

  • Michigan rates of dietary behaviors for older children are similar to U.S. rates.
  • Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2001
    • 13% of Michigan high school students were at risk for becoming overweight*, compared to 14% nationally.
    • 11% were overweight* compared to 10% nationally.

*Overweight is the word used with children, instead of obese

Michigan Surgeon General’s Health Status Report. Healthy Michigan 2010, April 8, 2004

slide9

Causes of Child ObesityIt gets complicated!Figure adapted from Figure 1-1 Influences on the diets and related health outcomes of children and youth. Institute of Medicine. Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? 2007

`

Marketing

Product, Place, Price and Promotion

Individual and Developmental Factors

Genetics and Biology

Family and Home

Cultures and Values

Diet and Physical Activity

School and Peers

Economic Factors

Health Outcomes

for Children and Youth

Public Policies

Production, Distribution and Promotion

Neighborhood and Community

causes of child obesity
Causes of Child Obesity
  • Food marketing and consumer socialization targeted toward children
  • Food packaging and portion sizes
  • Food as entertainment

?

food marketing targeted toward parents has normalized a junk food culture
Food Marketing Targeted Toward Parents – Has Normalized a Junk Food Culture

“My child just won’t eat anything but McDonald’s french fries. Why is he so picky?”

Mother of a 3 year old boy, 2007

the cost of obesity
The Cost of Obesity
  • Businesses spend an estimated $13-15 billion a year to market foods and drinks to U.S. children and their parents5,7.
  • In contrast, the National Cancer Institute spends $2 million a year to publicize its “5-a-day” program urging people to eat five fruits and vegetables daily3.
  • The same companies that spend billions yearly creating young brand loyalists have a presence in nearly all of Michigan public schools6.

GOAL – Eliminate marketing of unhealthy foods on school grounds

schools and childhood obesity
Schools and Childhood Obesity
  • In 2001, 47 million children in the United States were enrolled in public elementary and secondary schools.
  • More than ½ received free or reduced-cost lunches through the school meals program.
  • Schools may be the best, and sometimes only, meal many children can depend on.

GOAL – Provide training and support to foodservice and other relevant staff to meet nutrition standards and prepare healthier meals.

school lunch then
School Lunch . . . Then

Brand name products on the menu at a Washtenaw County Elementary School to help increase sales of the federally subsidized school lunch

slide19

Healthy Foods at School . . . One Step at a Time

School Strategies provided by the Environmental Nutrition and Activity Community – ENACT available @ www.preventioninstitute.org/sa/enact/school/index.php

STEP 1. Improve the nutritional quality and appeal of school meals.

STEP 2. Adopt nutrition standards for snacks, vending machine, and a la carte food and beverages.

In other words . . .

*****INCREASE EXPOSURE OF HEALTHY FOODS*****

STEP 3. Eliminate exclusive beverage contracts that require marketing of unhealthy beverages.

STEP 4. Institute guidelines for fundraising that promote healthy food and non-food methods.

STEP 5. Institute a farm-to-school program to provide education and fresh produce.

STEP 6. Providing access to free, clean water to drink.

STEP 7. Provide enough time and space to eat in a relaxed environment, such as recess before lunch

slide20

Healthy Foods at School . . . One Step at a Time

Additional STEPS -

STEP 8.Create MEASURES to continuously monitor and improve the school wellness policy

STEP 9.Develop relationships and collaborations with Public Health and other health professionals/programs

healthy foods in schools one step at a time
Healthy Foods in Schools . . .One Step at a Time

Washtenaw County Healthier School Examples

  • Project Healthy Schools
    • Ann Arbor Middle School obesity prevention program
    • Uses biometric measures to show decreases in high blood pressure, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol
  • Regional Alliance for Healthy Schools
    • Ongoing presence in Ann Arbor Middle Schools with a focus on Asthma prevention, increasing physical activity, healthy eating and tobacco prevention
healthy foods in schools one step at a time1
Resources for assistance in creating healthier Washtenaw County Schools

Washtenaw County Public Health’s Health Improvement Plan (HIP)

Resource for local health data

http://www.ewashtenaw.org/government/departments/public_health/hip/hip2005survey

Growing Hope

Assists in creating school learning gardens

http://www.growinghope.net/

Lunch Program Menu Assistance

Collaboration of Public Health Dietitian with school foodservice personal and administrators in creating healthier school menus

Contact [email protected] or [email protected]

Farm-to-School pilot program

Ann Arbor and Chelsea School Districts

http://www.farmtoschool.org/

http://www.ewashtenaw.org/government/departments/public_health/hip/newsletter/news/Spring%20_2007/food_WC

Move Forward Program

Chelsea Pierce Lake Elementary

Health Schools Assessment Tool (HSAT)

Public Health Personal can assist schools using the HSAT

http://tn.fcs.msue.msu.edu/hsat.html

Healthy Foods in Schools . . .One Step at a Time
slide24

References

  • 1. Institute of Medicine. Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity. 2007. P.30
  • National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention & Health Promotion Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System available at: http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss/Trends/TrendData.asp
  • Michigan Surgeon General’s Health Status Report. Healthy Michigan 2010, April 8, 2004
  • 2. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Children and Adolescents: United States, 1999-2002. National Center for Health Statistics website available at: www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/04facts/obesity.htm
  • The Associated Press. (2007, June 1). Junk food ads increasing on kids’ shows: Children saw twice as many spots during programming in 2004 than 1977. MSNBC.com. Retrieved June 10, 2007, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/1898923.
  • 2005 Washtenaw County Health Improvement Policy (HIP) Survey
  • available at: www.ewashtenaw.org
  • 5. Askari E. Vending machines in schools. What does pop really cost?
  • Detroit Free Press. April 29, 2002.
  • 3. John D. A consumer socialization of children:

A retrospective look at twenty-five years of research.

Journal of Consumer Research. 1999;26: 183-213.

  • 6. National Soft Drink Association. Business partnerships

between beverage companies and schools. Available at:

www.nsda.org. Accessed December 1, 2002.

  • School Strategies provided by the Environmental Nutrition and

Activity Community – ENACTavailable at:

www.preventioninstitute.org/sa/enact/school/index.php

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