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Chapter 15. Strategies When Population Distributions are Not Normal: Data Transformations and Rank-Order Tests. Assumptions in the Standard Hypothesis-Testing Procedures. Populations follow a normal curve Populations have equal variances Ceiling and floor effects. Data Transformations.

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Chapter 15 l.jpg
Chapter 15

Strategies When Population Distributions are Not Normal:

Data Transformations and

Rank-Order Tests


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Assumptions in the Standard Hypothesis-Testing Procedures

  • Populations follow a normal curve

  • Populations have equal variances

  • Ceiling and floor effects


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Data Transformations

  • Data transformation

  • Square-root transformation


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Data Transformations

  • Legitimacy of data transformations

  • Kinds of data transformations

    • Square root transformation

    • Log transformation

    • Inverse transformation

    • Arcsine transformation


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Rank-Order Tests

  • Rank-order transformation

  • Rank-order tests

  • Nonparametric tests

  • Parametric tests


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Rank-Order Tests

  • Basic logic

  • The null hypothesis

  • Normal curve approximations

  • Using parametric tests with rank-transformed data


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Comparison of Methods

  • Advantages and disadvantages

  • Relative risk of Type I and Type II errors


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Controversies and Recent Development

  • Computer-intensive methods

    • Randomization tests

    • Proposed alternative to parametric and nonparametric methods

    • Widely applicable

    • Unfamiliar to researchers


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Reporting in Research Articles

  • Data transformations

    • Described just prior to analyses using them

  • Rank-order methods

    • Described much like any other kind of hypothesis test


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