Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders

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Introduction. The word schizophrenia is derived from the Greek words skhizo (split) and phren (mind).Schizophrenia is probably caused by a combination of factors, including:Of all mental illnesses, schizophrenia probably causes moreLengthy hospitalizationsChaos in family li

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Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders

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1. Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders

2. Introduction The word schizophrenia is derived from the Greek words skhizo (split) and phren (mind). Schizophrenia is probably caused by a combination of factors, including: Of all mental illnesses, schizophrenia probably causes more Lengthy hospitalizations Chaos in family life Exorbitant costs to people and governments Fears

3. Nature of the Disorder Schizophrenia disturbs Thought processes, Perception and Affect With schizophrenia, there is a severe deterioration of social and occupational functioning * In the United States, the lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia is about 1 percent.

4. Premorbid behavior of the patient with schizophrenia can be viewed in four phases. First Phase: Schizoid Personality Indifferent, cold, and aloof, these people are loners. They do not enjoy close relationships with others. Second Phase: Prodromal Phase These people are socially withdrawn and show evidence of peculiar or eccentric behavior. Neglect of personal hygiene and grooming Blunted or inappropriate affect Disturbances in communication Bizarre ideas Lack of initiative Third Phase: Schizophrenia In the active phase of the disorder, psychotic symptoms are prominent Delusions Hallucinations Impairment in work, social relations, and self-care Fourth Phase: Residual Phase Symptoms similar to those of the prodromal phase Flat affect and impairment in role functioning are prominent

5. Predisposing Factors Various physical conditions Epilepsy Huntington’s chorea Birth trauma Head injury in adulthood Alcohol abuse Cerebral tumor Cerebrovascular accident Systemic lupus erythematosus Myxedema Parkinsonism Wilson’s disease

6. Characteristic Symptoms Positive symptoms: Delusions Hallucination Disorganized speech Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior Negative symptoms: Affective Flattening Alogia Apathy Anhedonia Social isolation

7. Types of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders Paranoid Disorgainzed Catatonic Residual Undifferentiated Schizoaffective disorder Brief psychotic disorder Schizophreniform disorder Delusional Disorder Shared psychotic disorder substance-Induced psychotic disorder

8. Content of Thought Delusions Of Persecution Of Grandeur Of Reference Of control or influence Somatic Nihilistic Religiosity Paranoia Magical thinking Form Associative Looseness Neologisms Concrete thinking Clang associations Word salad Circumstantialities Tangentiality Mutism Perseveration

9. Perception Hallucination Auditory Visual Tactile Olfactory Affects Inappropriate affect Bland or flat affect Apathy

10. Conventional Antipsychotics Generic Haloperidol Chlorpromazine Fluphenazine Thiothixene Trifluoperazine Thioridazine Perphenazine Loxapine Brand Haldol Thorazine Prolidixin Navane Stelazine Mellari Trilafon Loxitane

11. Conventional Antipsychotics Advantage -Effective for positive symptoms of schizophrenia - Available in IM formulation for acute psychosis/agitation - Cheap Disadvantage Could worsen cognitive function Minimally effective for negative symptoms of schizophrenia Higher incidence of side effects (EPS, NMS, tardive dyskinesia, etc.

12. Atypical Antipsychotics Generic Clozapine Olanzapine Risperidone Quetiapine Ziprasidone Aripiprazole Paliperidonen Brand Clozaril, FazaClo Zyprexa (Aydis) Risperdal (Consta, M-tab) Seroquel, Seroquest XR Geodon Abilify Invega (newest)

13. Atypical Antipsychotics Advantage Effective for positive of symptoms of schizophrenia May improve negative symptoms of schizophrenia Lower incidence of side effects compared to conventional antipsychotics Disadvantage Higher incidence of weight gain Higher incidence of diabets - Expensive

14. Side Effects Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) Potentially life threatening High fever, unstable BP, myoglobinemia Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) Involuntary muscle symptoms similar to those of Parkinson’s disease Akathisia (distressing muscle restlessness) Acute dystonia (painful muscle spasms) Treated with benztropine (Cogentin) and trihexyphenidyl (Artane) Tardive dyskinesia (TD) Involuntary contractions of oral and facial muscles Choreoathetosis (wavelike movements of extremities) Occurs with continuous long-term antipsychotic therapy

15. Nursing Process Nursing Assessment Nursing Diagnosis Related to Evidenced by Interventions Education

16. A 29 year old woman is being discharged in 2 days form the hospital after her first psychotic break (paranoid schizophrenia). She is recently divorced and has been working as a legal secretary, although her work had become erratic, and her suspicious behavior was calling attention to herself at work. She will be discharged in her mother’s care until she is able to resume working. Her mother is overwhelmed and asked the nurse how she is going to cope. “She has become so distant and she always takes thing the wrong way. I can hardly say anything to her with her misconstruing everything. She is very mad at me because I called 911 and had her admitted after she told me she was going to get justice back in the world by blowing up evil forces that have been haunting her life and then proceeded to try to run over her ex-husband, thinking he was the devil. She told me there is nothing wrong with her and I am concerned she won’t take her medication once she is discharge.

17. What are some of the priority concern that nurse could address in the hospital setting before she is discharge? How would you explain to the mother some of the symptoms that she is experience in? What suggestion could you give her to handle some of the immediate concerns? What issues could you bring up to the staff about her medication compliance? What would be some ways to deal with this issue? 4. What do you think of the prognosis for her? Support your hypothesis with data regarding influences on the course of schizophrenia.

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