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Aggregate Supply. CHAPTER 11. © 2003 South-Western/Thomson Learning. Aggregate Supply in Short Run. Aggregate supply is the relationship between the price level in the economy and the aggregate output firms are willing and able to supply, with other things constant

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Aggregate supply l.jpg

Aggregate Supply

CHAPTER

11

© 2003 South-Western/Thomson Learning


Aggregate supply in short run l.jpg

Aggregate Supply in Short Run

  • Aggregate supply is the relationship between the price level in the economy and the aggregate output firms are willing and able to supply, with other things constant

  • Assumed constant along a given aggregate supply curve are

    • Resource prices

    • State of technology

    • Set of formal and informal institutions that structure production incentives


Labor and aggregate supply l.jpg

Labor and Aggregate Supply

  • Labor is the most important resource, accounting for about 70% of production costs

  • The supply of labor in an economy depends on

    • The size and abilities of the adult population, and

    • Household preferences for work versus leisure


Labor and aggregate supply4 l.jpg

Labor and Aggregate Supply

  • Along a given labor supply curve, the quantity of labor depends on the wage rate the higher the wage, other things constant, the more people are willing and able to work

  • However, the purchasing power of any given nominal wage depends on the economy’s price level


Labor and aggregate supply5 l.jpg

Labor and Aggregate Supply

  • The higher the price level, the less any given money wage will purchase and the lower the price level, the more any given money wage will purchase

  • Because the price level matters, we must distinguish between the nominal wage and the real wage

    • Nominal wage measures the wage in current dollars

    • Real wage measures the wage in constant dollars  dollars measured by the goods and services they will buy


Real and nominal wages l.jpg

Real and Nominal Wages

  • All resource suppliers, including labor, must reach agreement based on the expected price level

  • Wage agreements may be either explicit or implicit

    • Explicit agreements would be those based on a labor contract

    • Implicit agreements would be those based on labor market practices


Potential output l.jpg

Potential Output

  • If these price-level expectations are realized, the agreed-upon nominal wage translates into the expected real wage

  • When the actual price level turns out as expected, the resulting level of output is referred to as the economy’s potential output

    • Potential output is the amount produced when there are no surprises associated with the price level


Potential output8 l.jpg

Potential Output

  • Potential output can be thought of as the economy’s maximum sustainable output level, given the

    • Supply of resources

    • State of technology

    • Formal and informal production incentives

  • Often referred to by other terms

    • Natural rate of output

    • Full-employment rate of output


Natural rate of unemployment l.jpg

Natural Rate of Unemployment

  • Natural rate of unemployment

    • The unemployment rate that occurs when the economy is producing its potential GDP

    • The rate that prevails when cyclical unemployment is zero

    • The number of job openings is equal to the number unemployed for frictional, structural, and seasonal reasons

    • Estimates of the natural rate range from about 4 to 6% of the labor force


Actual price higher than expected l.jpg

Actual Price Higher than Expected

  • Since the prices of many resources are fixed for the duration of the contract, firms welcome a price level higher than expected

  • Their selling price (thus revenue) of their products, on average, are higher than expected, while the costs of at least some of the resources remain constant  firms have an incentive in the short run to expand production beyond the economy’s potential level


Actual price higher than expected11 l.jpg

Actual Price Higher than Expected

  • Even in an economy producing its potential output, there is some unemployed labor and unused production capacity

  • Potential GDP can be thought of as the economy’s normal capacity

  • Firms and workers are able, in the short run, to push output beyond the economy’s potential


Why costs rise l.jpg

Why Costs Rise

  • As output expands above potential GDP, the cost of producing this additional output increases

    • Additional workers are harder to find

    • Some workers may not be properly prepared

    • The prices of those resources purchased in markets where prices are flexible will increase reflecting their increased scarcity

    • Firms use their capital resources more intensively


Why costs rise13 l.jpg

Why Costs Rise

  • However, because the prices of some resources are fixed by contracts, the price level rises faster than the per-unit production cost  firms find it profitable to increase the quantity supplied

  • When the actual price level exceeds the expected price level, the real value of an agreed-upon nominal wage declines


Summary l.jpg

Summary

  • If the price level is higher than expected, firms have a profit incentive to increase the quantity of goods and services supplied

  • At higher rates of output, however, the per-unit cost of additional output increases

  • Firms will expand output as long as the revenue from additional production exceeds the cost of the production


Actual price lower than expected l.jpg

Actual Price Lower than Expected

  • Production is less attractive to firms because the prices they receive for their output are on average lower than they expected

  • However, many of their production costs, such as the nominal wage, do not fall  production is less profitable than expected  firms reduce their quantity supplied  the economy’s output is below its potential


Actual price lower than expected16 l.jpg

Actual Price Lower than Expected

  • As a result, some workers are laid off and capital resources go unused

  • In this case, some costs decline when output falls below the economy’s potential

  • As output falls, some resources become unemployed


Summary17 l.jpg

Summary

  • If the price level is higher than expected

    • Firms increase the quantity supplied beyond the economy’s potential

    • The per-unit cost of additional production increases

  • If the price level is lower than expected

    • Firms reduce output below the economy’s potential output

    • Prices fall more than costs


Short run aggregate supply curve l.jpg

Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

  • What what have just described can be used to trace out the short-run aggregate supply curve – SRAS

  • SRAS shows the relationship between the actual price level and real GDP supplied, other things constant

  • The short run is the period during which some resource prices are fixed by either explicit or implicit agreement


Exhibit 1 short run aggregate supply curve l.jpg

Exhibit 1:Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

Potential

output

SRAS

130

The expected price level is 130; the SRAS is based on that expected price level.

140

l

e

v

e

l

130

a

e

c

If the price level turns out to be 130 as expected, producers supply the economy’s potential level of output, $10.0 trillion.

i

r

P

120

0 10.0

Real GDP (trillions of dollars)


Exhibit 1 short run aggregate supply curve20 l.jpg

Potential

output

SRAS

130

140

l

e

v

e

l

130

a

e

c

i

r

P

120

0 10.0

Real GDP (trillions of dollars)

Exhibit 1: Short-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

The short-run aggregate supply becomes steeper as output increases because resources become more costly as output increases


Exhibit 2 expansionary gap l.jpg

b

135

AD

10.2

Exhibit 2: Expansionary Gap

Potential

output

SRAS

130

140

Price level

130

a

0 10.0

Real GDP

(trillions of dollars)

Expansionary gap


Exhibit 2 expansionary gap22 l.jpg

SRAS

140

c

140

b

135

AD

10.2

Expansionary gap

Exhibit 2: Expansionary Gap

Potential

output

Price level

SRAS

130

130

a

0 10.0

Real GDP

(trillions of dollars)


Exhibit 3 contractionary gap l.jpg

Exhibit 3: Contractionary Gap

Potential

output

SRAS

130

130

a

Price level

d

125

e

120

AD

9.8

10.0

0

Contractionary gap


Exhibit 3 contractionary gap24 l.jpg

Exhibit 3: Contractionary Gap

Potential

output

SRAS

130

SRAS

120

130

a

Price level

d

125

e

120

AD

9.8

10.0

0

Contractionary gap


Contractionary gap l.jpg

Contractionary Gap

  • The key to closing a contractionary gap is the flexibility of wages and prices

  • If wages and prices are not very flexible, they will not adjust very quickly to a contractionary gap  shifts in the short-run aggregate supply curve may occur slowly  the economy can be stuck at an output and employment level below its potential


Long run aggregate supply l.jpg

Long-Run Aggregate Supply

  • The long-run aggregate supply curve, LRAS, depends on the

    • supply of resources in the economy

    • level of technology

    • production incentives provided by the formal and informal institutions of the economic system

  • As long as wages and prices are flexible, the economy’s potential GDP is consistent with any price level


Exhibit 4 long run aggregate supply curve l.jpg

b

140

c

120

AD'

AD''

Exhibit 4: Long-Run Aggregate Supply Curve

The initial price level of 130 is determined by the intersection of AD with the long-run aggregate supply curve.

Potential output

LRAS

a

130

Price level

AD

10.0

Real GDP (trillions of dollars)

0


Wage flexibility and employment l.jpg

Wage Flexibility and Employment

  • An expansionary gap creates a labor shortage that eventually results in a higher nominal wage and a higher price level

  • A contractionary gap does not necessarily generate enough downward pressure to lower the nominal wage, e.g., that is, nominal wages are slow to adjust to high unemployment  they tend to be sticky in the downward direction


Wage flexibility and employment29 l.jpg

Wage Flexibility and Employment

  • However, an actual decline in the nominal wage is not necessary to close a contractionary gap

    • All that is needed is a fall in the real wage

    • The real wage will fall as long as the price level increases more than the nominal wage


Increases in aggregate supply l.jpg

Increases in Aggregate Supply

  • The economy’s potential output is based on the

    • willingness and ability of households to supply resources to firms which can be caused by a change

      • in the size, composition, or quality of the labor force

      • in household preferences for labor versus leisure

    • level of technology

    • institutional underpinnings of the economic system


Exhibit 6 change in the supply of resources l.jpg

Exhibit 6: Change in the Supply of Resources

A gradual increase in the supply of resources increases the potential level of real GDP  the long run aggregate supply curve shifts from LRAS to LRAS'

LRAS

LRAS'

l

e

v

e

l

e

c

i

r

P

Real GDP

0

10.0

10.5

(trillions of dollars)


Supply shocks l.jpg

Supply Shocks

  • Supply shocks are unexpected events that change aggregate supply, sometimes only temporarily

  • Beneficial supply shocks increase aggregate supply; examples include

    • Abundant harvests that increase the supply of food

    • Discoveries of natural resources

    • Technological breakthroughs that allow firms to combine resources more efficiently

    • Sudden changes in the economic system that promote more production


Exhibit 7 beneficial supply shock l.jpg

LRAS'

SRAS

125

125

b

10.2

Exhibit 7: Beneficial Supply Shock

Here, the beneficial supply shock is assumed to be a technological breakthrough, which shifts the SRAS from SRAS130 to SRAS125 and the long-run aggregate supply curve from LRAS to LRAS´.

LRAS

SRAS

130

Price level

130

a

Thus, for a given aggregate demand curve, a beneficial supply shock leads to an increase in output and a decrease in the price level.

AD

0

10.0

Real GDP

(trillions of dollars)


Decreases in aggregate supply l.jpg

Decreases in Aggregate Supply

  • Adverse supply shocks are sudden, unexpected events that reduce aggregate supply, again sometimes, only temporarily

    • Drought could reduce the supply of a variety of resources

    • Government instability

    • Terrorist attacks


Exhibit 8 adverse supply shock l.jpg

LRAS''

SRAS

135

c

135

9.8

Exhibit 8: Adverse Supply Shock

The adverse supply is shown as the leftward shift of both the short and long-run aggregate supply curves with the result that the price level increases and the level of output declines  stagflation as equilibrium moves

from point a to point c

LRAS

SRAS

l

130

e

v

e

l

e

c

i

r

P

a

130

AD

0

10.0

Real GDP

(trillions of dollars)


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