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HDM-4 Road User Costs Model Version 2.00 Rodrigo Archondo-Callao February 18, 2010 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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HDM-4 Road User Costs Model Version 2.00 Rodrigo Archondo-Callao February 18, 2010. http://worldbank.org/roadsoftwaretools/. HDM-4 RUC Model Version 2.00. Motorcycle Small Car Medium Car Light Delivery Vehicle Four Wheel Drive Light Truck Medium Truck Heavy Truck Articulated Truck

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HDM-4 Road User Costs Model Version 2.00 Rodrigo Archondo-Callao February 18, 2010

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Hdm 4 road user costs model version 2 00 rodrigo archondo callao february 18 2010 l.jpg

HDM-4 Road User Costs Model Version 2.00Rodrigo Archondo-CallaoFebruary 18, 2010

http://worldbank.org/roadsoftwaretools/


Hdm 4 ruc model version 2 00 l.jpg

HDM-4 RUC Model Version 2.00


Twelve vehicles types l.jpg

Motorcycle

Small Car

Medium Car

Light Delivery Vehicle

Four Wheel Drive

Light Truck

Medium Truck

Heavy Truck

Articulated Truck

Light Bus

Medium Bus

Heavy Bus

Twelve Vehicles Types


Road user costs components l.jpg

Road User Costs Components

  • Fuel

  • Lubricant oil

  • Tire wear

  • Crew time

  • Maintenance labor

  • Maintenance parts

  • Depreciation

  • Interest

  • Overheads

  • Passenger time

  • Cargo holding time

Vehicle Operating Costs

Time Costs

Accidents Costs

New

Emissions

New


Vehicle speed and physical quantities l.jpg

Vehicle Speed and Physical Quantities

Road and Vehicle Characteristics

Vehicle Speed

Unit Costs

Physical Quantities

Road User Costs


Physical quantities l.jpg

Physical Quantities

Component

Quantities per Vehicle-km

Fuel

liters

Lubricant oil

liters

Tire wear

# of equivalent new tires

Crew time

hours

Passenger time

hours

Cargo holding time

hours

Maintenance labor

hours

Maintenance parts

% of new vehicle price

Depreciation

% of new vehicle price

Interest

% of new vehicle price


Free flow speeds model l.jpg

Free-Flow Speeds Model

  • VDRIVEu and VDRIVEd = uphill and downhill velocities limited by gradient and used driving power

  • VBRAKEu and VBRAKEd = uphill and downhill velocities limited by gradient and used braking power

  • VCURVE = velocity limited by curvature

  • VROUGH = velocity limited by roughness

  • VDESIR = velocity limited by safety and speed limit enforcement

Free speeds are calculated using a mechanistic/behavioral models and are a minimum of the following constraining velocities.


Vdrive l.jpg

VDRIVE

DriveForce

Grade Resistance

Air Resistance

Rolling Resistance

- Driving power- Operating weight- Gradient- Density of air- Aerodynamic drag coef.- Projected frontal area- Tire type- Number of wheels

- Roughness- Texture depth- % time driven on snowcovered roads- % time driven on watercovered roads


Vcurve l.jpg

VCURVE

VCURVE is calculated as a function of the radius ofcurvature.

VCURVE = a0 * R ^ a1

R = Radius of curvature

R = 180,000/(*max(18/ ,C))

C = Horizontal curvature

a0 and a1 = Regression parameters


Speed flow model l.jpg

Speed Flow Model

To consider reduction in speeds due to congestion, the “three-zone” model is adopted.

Speed (km/hr)

Car

Pickup

Bus

Truck

Sult

Flow

PCSE/hr

Qnom

Qo

Qult


Traffic flow periods l.jpg

Traffic Flow Periods

To consider different levels of traffic congestion at different hours and days during a year, HDM-4 evaluates different traffic flow periods for which different hourly flows are applicable

Flow Periods

Flow

Peak

Nextto Peak

Mediumflow

NexttoLow

Overnight

Number of Hours in the Year


Fuel model l.jpg

Fuel Model

  • Based on ARRB ARFCOM model

  • Predicts fuel use as function of power usage


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Congestion Modelling


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Maintenance Parts Consumption

Maintenance parts consumption function of roughness and age of the vehicle


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Capital Costs

  • Comprised of depreciation and interest costs

  • HDM-4 uses ‘Optimal Life’ method, in which vehicle service life is a function of roughness, or constant life method


Road safety l.jpg

Road Safety

  • HDM-4 model estimates road safety costs of:

    • Fatal accidents

    • Injury accidents

    • Damage only accidents

  • HDM-4 RUC model follows the International Road Assessment Program (iRAP) methodology and estimates road safety costs of:

    • Fatalities

    • Persons with Serious Injuries


Irap methodology l.jpg

iRAP Methodology

  • User defines vehicle fleet fatality rate in number per 100 million vehicle-km

  • User defines vehicle fleet serious injury rate per 100 million vehicle-km

  • Cost per fatality computed function of GDP per capita (default: GDP per capita multiplied by 70)

  • Cost per serious injury computed function of cost per fatality (default: 25% of fatality cost)

International Road Assessment Programme methodology (iRAP).

http://irap.net/


Emissions model l.jpg

Emissions Model

  • Road characteristics

  • Traffic volume/congestion

  • Vehicle technology

  • Hydrocarbon

  • Carbon monoxide

  • Nitrous oxides

  • Sulphur dioxide

  • Carbon dioxide

  • Particulates

  • Lead

Fuelconsumption


Ruc comparison l.jpg

RUC Comparison

Roughness = 2.0 IRI m/km


Ruc composition l.jpg

RUC Composition

Roughness = 2.0 IRI m/km


Ruc roughness sensitivity l.jpg

RUC Roughness Sensitivity


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RUC Roughness Sensitivity


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RUC Roughness Sensitivity

6.0 IRI = 0.22 US$ per vehicle-km2.0 IRI = 0.21 US$ per vehicle-kmSaving = 0.01 US$ per vehicle-kmAADT = 3,000 vehicles/day=> 1,095,000 vehicles/yearSaving = 10,850 US$ per year per km


Fuel consumption and speed l.jpg

Fuel Consumption and Speed

Roughness = 2.0 IRI m/km


Co2 emissions and speed l.jpg

CO2 Emissions and Speed

Roughness = 2.0 IRI m/km


Fuel consumption and roughness l.jpg

Fuel Consumption and Roughness

Speed function of roughness


Co2 emissions and roughness l.jpg

CO2 Emissions and Roughness

Speed function of roughness


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Road Software Tools Website

  • HDM-4 Road User Costs Model Version 2.00 available for download at:

    http://worldbank.org/roadsoftwaretools/


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