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NINETEEN. Recognition, Control, and Investigation of Drug Abuse. LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Identify and describe several opium‑derived drugs List and describe synthetic narcotics Identify and distinguish among stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens

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NINETEEN

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NINETEEN

Recognition, Control, and Investigation of Drug Abuse


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LEARNING OBJECTIVES

  • Identify and describe several opium‑derived drugs

  • List and describe synthetic narcotics

  • Identify and distinguish among stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens

  • Outline techniques used in investigating dangerous drugs and narcotics

  • Assess the motives, methods, and management of drug informants

  • Describe the process of identifying and conducting raids on clandestine labs

  • Explain the type of information necessary to establish probable cause and obtain search warrants

  • Be familiar with drug evidence handling and potential security problems

19-1


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OPIUM-DERIVED DRUGS

  • Opium

    • One of the first drugs of abuse was opium

  • Morphine

    • Morphine is obtained from raw opium

  • Heroin (Diacetylmorphine)

    • Heroin was found to be considerably stronger than morphine in 1890

19-2(a)


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OPIUM-DERIVED DRUGS (cont'd)

  • Codeine

    • The alkaloid codeine is found in raw opium in concentrations from 0.7 to 2.3 percent. It was first isolated in 1832 as an impurity in a batch of morphine.

  • Other Opium Derivatives

    • Other opium derivatives abused and stolen from pharmacies, hospitals, and physicians are Dilaudid, Papaverine, and Pantopon.

19-2(b)


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HEROIN FILLED LATEX BALLOONS

  • Heroin is smuggled into the U.S. in a variety of ways

  • Drug couriers often swallow heroin filled balloons before boarding commercial planes

  • Most heroin is smuggled into the U.S. from Columbia

(Courtesy Drug Enforcement Administration)

19-3


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SYNTHETIC NARCOTICS

  • Synthetic narcotics, though chemically related to the opium alkaloids, are produced entirely within the laboratory

  • Meperidine (Pethidine)

    • The commercial name for meperidine is Demerol, and it was the first synthetic narcotic

  • Methadone

    • A heroin-dependent person can be treated with doses of methadone as a replacement for heroin

19-4


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STIMULANTS

  • Drugs falling into the stimulants group directly stimulate the central nervous system

  • Cocaine

    • Cocaine is a naturally occurring stimulant that is extracted from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca)

  • Amphetamines

    • Amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine are closely related chemically

19-5(a)


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STIMULANTS (cont'd)

  • Phenmetrazine (Preludin), Methylphenidate (Ritalin), and Pemoline (Cylert)

    • Phenmetrazine is related chemically to the amphetamines, and its abuse produces similar effects

  • Crystalized Methamphetamine

    • Crystalized methamphetamine, better known as crystal meth and speed during the 1960s and 1970s

  • Methcathinone

    • Methcathinone, called cat or goob, is a pyschomotor stimulant with a chemical structure similar to methamphetamine

19-5(b)


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POWDERED COCAINE

  • Cocaine is a naturally occurring stimulant

  • It is extracted from the leaves of coca plants

  • The powder is often adultered at each level of sale by drug dealers

(Courtesy Drug Enforcement Administration)

19-6


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COCAINE TRAFFICKING PATTERNS

  • Drug dealing is an international business

  • Much of the illegal cocaine arriving in the U.S. is smuggled in from countries in South America

  • The Drug Enforcement Administration seeks assistance from foreign police officials in its war on drugs

(Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice)

19-7


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KILO PACKAGES OF COCAINE

  • Cocaine may be smuggled into the U.S. in single batches

  • Lower-level drug dealers adulterate or “cut” the cocaine before re-sale

  • The cutting process increases the profits for the dealers

(Courtesy Drug Enforcement Administration)

19-8


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DEPRESSANTS (SEDATIVES)

  • Glutethimide (Doriden)

  • Depressants of sedatives depress the central nervous system and are prescribed in small doses to reduce restlessness and emotional tension and to induce sleep

    • When introduced in 1954 glutethimide was wrongly believed to be a nonaddictive barbiturate substitute

  • Methaqualone

    • Methaqualone was at one time very popular in the United States but has since been removed from the market

19-9(a)


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DEPRESSANTS (SEDATIVES) (cont'd)

  • Meprobamate

    • First synthesized in 1960 as a mild tranquilizer, meprobamate is distributed in the nited States under the generic brand name

  • OxyContin

    • Another powerful narcotic that is presently sold legally is OxyContin

19-9(b)


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HALLUCINOGENS

  • The hallucinogenic drugs, natural or synthetic, distort perception of objective reality.

  • Phencyclidine (PCP)

    • Phencyclidine, commonly called PCP, in pharmaceutically pure form is a solid white powder

  • Methylenedioxy Methamphetamine (MDMA)

    • Commonly known as MDMA or “ecstasy,” is a bitter white power

  • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD 25)

    • LSD is a semisynthetic compound produced from lysergic acid. An average does of 30 to 50 microgramsCabout the size of a pinpointCwill take the user on a “trip” lasting 10 to 12 hours

19-10(a)


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HALLUCINOGENS (cont'd)

  • Mescaline (Peyote)

    • The primary active ingredient of the peyote cactus is the hallucinogen mescaline

  • Psilocybin and Psilocyn

    • Psilocybin and psilocyn are obtained from mushrooms generally grown in Mexico

  • Marijuana

    • Marijuana is made by crushing or chopping the dried leaves and flowers of the plant into small pieces

    • The cleaned or manicured leaves are then rolled into a cigarette and smoked

19-10(b)


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HALLUCINOGENS (cont'd)

  • Hashish

    • Hashish is processed by drying to produce a drug several times as potent as marijuana

  • Hashish Oil

    • Liquid hashish is produced by concentrating THC

  • Ketamine

    • Ketamine hydrochloride is a synthetic drug and is an anesthetic agent that has legitimate uses

19-10(c)


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KETAMINE

  • Ketamine is a synthetic drug

  • It was developed as an anesthetic agent in the 1960s

  • Today its use has been associated with all night parties called “raves”

(Courtesy Sergeant Christopher McKissick and Detective Tyler Parks, Port Orange, Florida, Police Department)

19-11


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INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES

  • Most of the techniques used in investigating dangerous-drug and narcotics cases are the same as those used in investigating other cases; however there are some unique procedures.

  • The Purchase

    • One important aspect is identification of the source. It is desirable to make more than one direct purchase from a seller, if possible.

  • The Apprehension

    • All arrests should be as unobtrusive as possible to prevent them from becoming common knowledge on the street

19-12


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DRUG INFORMANTS: MOTIVES, METHODS, AND MANAGEMENT

  • Informants: Motivations and Types

    • Problem Informants. Some informants have personalities that make them difficult, if not impossible, to manage.

    • Egotistical Informants. Investigators who provide positive reinforcement motivate egotistical informants to continue supplying information.

    • Informants with the James Bond Syndrome. While working as informants, they imagine themselves in a police of spy drama.

19-13(a)


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DRUG INFORMANTS: MOTIVES, METHODS, AND MANAGEMENT (cont'd)

  • Wannabe Informants. They now seek to become involved in law enforcement as informants.

  • Perversely Motivated Informants. These informants offer their services in order to identify undercover agents.

  • Restricted-Use Informants. By virtue of their criminal background or other status, these pose special management challenges.

19-12(b)


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OFFICER TALKING TO DRUG DEALER INFORMANT

  • Informants in drug enforcement are unique

  • Investigators must know what motivates them

  • The informants must be carefully managed

© Bonnie Kamin

19-13


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DEPARTMENT POLICY REGARDING MANAGING INFORMANTS

  • Agencies should not leave the management of drug informants exclusively to investigators

  • Formulating a written policy ensures consistency in the use and management of CIs and serves as a guide for inexperienced investigators

    • The Informant File. This file is used to document every encounter

19-14(a)


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DEPARTMENT POLICY REGARDING MANAGING INFORMANTS (cont'd)

  • Phenmetrazine (Preludin), Methylphenidate (Ritalin), and Pemoline (Cylert)

    • Phenmetrazine is related chemically to the amphetamines, and its abuse produces similar effects.

    • Investigator-Informant Contact Procedures. The department must establish investigator-informant contact procedures and train employees in their use.

    • Informant Payments. Payments to CIs can be divided into two distinct categoriesCawards and rewards.

19-14(b)


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CLANDESTINE DRUG LABORATORIES

  • Illicit operations that produce a variety of illegal drugs for sale and distribution; due to the chemicals, processes used, and workers= inexperience, pose serious danger to police and firefighters, as well as the public.

  • Clandestine drug laboratories throughout the United States produce a variety of illegal drugs for sale and distribution.

  • Clandestine laboratory operations are typically identified in several ways:

    • fire investigations

    • information from informants

    • tips from the community

19-15


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METH LABS

  • Illegal laboratories that manufacture methamphetamine; range from industrial-size organizations to one-person tweeker labs, with prevalence skyrocketing due to availability of “recipes” and chemicals via the Internet

19-16


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METH LABS

  • Meth labs are one of the fastest-growing types of clandestine labs today

  • Some dealers have developed small labs that can produce quantities from one ounce to one pound

  • These small labs create significant problems for law enforcement

(Courtesy Drug Enforcement Administration)

19-17


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CONDUCTING A LABORATORY RAID

  • Conducting a raid on an occupied laboratory requires careful planning.

  • Normally, a planning meeting involves:

    • the police tactical unit

    • bomb squad

    • hazardous-material or chemical-waste disposal personnel

    • a chemist

    • and the fire department representatives

19-18


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METH LAB RAID

  • The methamphetamine cooking process is dangerous due to fumes and volatility of ingredients

  • After the scene is secured the assessment team (as shown) enters

  • Team members wear special protector equipment and breathing gear

(Courtesy Detective David Street, Riverside County, California, Sheriff’s Department)

19-19


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SEARCH WARRANTS AND PROBABLE CAUSE

  • Officers engaged in drug enforcement must understand the legal elements necessary to constitute probable cause for obtaining search warrants.

    • Law Enforcement Background of the Warrant Applicant

    • Past Reliability of the Confidential Informant

    • Information Supplied by the Informant

    • Corroboration of the Information Supplied

19-20


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EVIDENCE HANDLING AND SECURITY PROBLEMS

  • Aside from the burglaries, larcenies, and other crimes committed because of narcotics, there are additional related problems sprouting from the drug-culture vine

  • Some of these involve the police officers= integrity

19-21(a)


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EVIDENCE HANDLING AND SECURITY PROBLEMS (cont'd)

  • The handling and securing of narcotics and dangerous drugs after they are collected and seized, has emerged as an area of growing concern

  • The evidence must be protected against loss from the outside and sometimes from inside the police agency

19-21(b)


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