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DRILLING LABORATORY THE WOODLANDS, TEXAS. EVALUATION OF TARIJA FORMATION SAMPLES. PRESENTATION HIGHLIGHTS. Simulator test objectives Inefficiencies relating to drilling the Tarija Formation Hughes Christensen drilling laboratory overview Pressure simulator overview

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Drilling laboratory the woodlands texas

DRILLING LABORATORYTHE WOODLANDS, TEXAS

EVALUATION OF TARIJA FORMATION SAMPLES


PRESENTATION HIGHLIGHTS

  • Simulator test objectives

  • Inefficiencies relating to drilling the Tarija Formation

  • Hughes Christensen drilling laboratory overview

  • Pressure simulator overview

  • Tarija sample outcrops in Bolivia

  • Mineralogy test results of the Tarija formation

  • Pressure simulator test results on two samples

  • Results evaluation

  • Suggestions


PRESSURE SIMULATOR TEST OBJECTIVES

  • Cost reduction on rig test vs. lab test

  • Prove drilling behavior of diamectites with different cutting structures

  • Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) while drilling

  • Final bottom imprint

  • Drilling dysfunctions related to rock type

  • Obtain knowledge to design new cutting structures

  • REPSOL-YPF co-sponsored the test and provided the samples



DRILLING BEHAVIOR ON THE FIELD

  • Low efficiency = Low ROP = High drilling cost

  • OC and TR as main wear pattern

  • Limited drilling hours (more bit trips) = High drilling cost

  • High MSE

  • Bit and BHA vibrations

  • Optimization target is unknown and also hard to reach


OFF-CENTER DRILLING

  • Rock-Bit interaction

  • Poor lateral bit stability (BHA and Bit design)

  • High RPM

  • Bottom pattern generates track between the rows of inserts

  • Low efficiency = Low ROP = Short bit runs = Severe wear on bits

  • Can be associated to natural BHA imbalance

  • Bit cutting structure also affects behavior


OFF-CENTER ROTATION

  • OC simulation of a bit cutting structure

  • Movement is actually very subtle

  • Generates bottom tracks of formation between the rows of inserts


OFF-CENTER SYMPTOMS

  • Wear pattern concentrates on the cone shell

  • Can lead to exposing cone bearing (loss of cone)

After the run

Off-Center

New Bit


OFF-CENTER SYMPTOMS

  • More severe cases under unstable conditions

  • Shirttail wear on one cone normally reveals OC behavior

After the run

Off-Center = Loss of the nose

New Bit


TRACKING

  • Tracking simulation of a cutting structure

  • Bit inserts don’t cover the entire surface

  • Inserts fall in the same cavity left by a previous insert

  • Can be coupled to OC mode in certain situations

Tracking

No Tracking


TRACKING SYMPTOMS

  • Marks in between the inserts

  • Inserts with self-sharpening shape

  • Normally occurs in the outer rows of inserts (more probability)

Marks in between inserts


MSE = MECHANICAL SPECIFIC ENERGY

  • Can be used to quantify drilling efficiency

  • Hard to measure on the field (bottom hole parameters normally not available)

  • Requires measurements very close to the bit

  • Higher WOB = Higher MSE

  • Higher RPM = Higher MSE

  • Higher TQ = Higher MSE

  • Lower ROP = Higher MSE

  • Efficiency = 1 = MSE / UCS


DRILLING LABORATORYThe Woodlands, Texas


PRESSURE SIMULATORThe Woodlands, Texas

  • Indoor drilling laboratory

  • Simulates drilling conditions up to 6700m

  • Can be used to test bits under virtually any bottom hole condition

  • Analysis of parameters

  • Sensors measure bit-rock interaction

  • Bottom hole imprint after test

  • Simulates hydrostatic conditions


PRESSURE SIMULATORThe Woodlands, Texas


TARIJA SAMPLES - BOLIVIA

  • Initial mineralogy test samples from Bermejo (Rock A) and Huacaya (Rock B)

  • Pressure simulator samples form Aguarague (high clay content) and Isiri (high quartz content)


TARIJA SAMPLES – MINERALOGY TEST

  • Smaller samples for mineralogy tests

  • Rock sample A from Bermejo area

  • Rock sample B from Huacaya area





MINERALOGY TEST RESULTS

  • Both rocks are basically the same type according to spider plot

  • The rock in both cases is medium strength under Mohr-failure envelope

  • Higher quartz content reflects higher UCS values

  • P-S wave behavior shows dissimilar strength behavior

  • Higher clay content (lower UCS) seems to act as a harder rock under confinement

  • Linear relation of UCS may not be a good value to look at when evaluating diamectites


SIMULATOR TEST SAMPLES

  • ISIRI samples show greater compaction and also greater sand content

  • AGUARGUE samples show higher clay content, very fractured and low strength. Weathering process show effect on all samples


SAMPLES AFTER CUTTING

  • 4 large samples from ISIRI are sent to Savannah, Georgia for cylindrical cutting process

  • Only 2 samples survive transport and cutting process (fractured rock)

  • Surviving samples are protected by fiberglass coating


PRESSURE SIMULATOR TESTS

  • Test both samples under equal conditions

  • SAMPLE A: 12¼” GX-09DX (IADC 437), 7 inner rows, 3 outer rows, 88 compacts

  • SAMPLE B: 12¼” EP6312 (IADC 517), 8 inner rows, 3 outer rows, 133 compacts

  • RPM: 150

  • WOB: 15-20-25-30-35 Klbs

  • 450GPM, Water based mud 9.5ppg, Nozzles 3x15, TFA = 0.52in²

  • 1.47 HSI

  • 5800 PSI confinement pressure


TEST A: 12¼” GX-09DX

  • Bit with no damage

  • Formation-inserts sloughing on the bottom

  • OC initiation (ledges on the wall)

  • TR on bottom visible

  • Hard-Sandy formation with ductile behavior?


TEST B: 12¼” EP6312

Bit with no damage

Cleaner bottom imprint

No formation-insert sloughing

Very minor tracking evidence

No ledges on the wall







RESULTS AND COMPARISON

  • ISIRI samples show 95% quartz content

  • Previous samples ROCK A-B show 71% and 58% of quartz content respectively

  • Color and texture of the rock seem to differ from original samples

  • First sample was stuck for 5 days after the test due to fines generation (seals blocked)

  • UCS values of simulator samples are close to 26KSI which are closer to certain types of granite rock


Preliminary conclusions
PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS

  • EP6312 (new M features) is better adapted to formation properties

  • Need to validate results with a field run

  • Diamectite rock has quite unique properties (hard-ductile-wave resonance)

  • UCS is not a good index for diamectites

  • OC and TR are clearly related to cutting structure design

  • DART to implement features on 16-28” bits

  • More testing of samples is required to get a better idea on additional rock beahvior


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