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Distance Education Technologies. Eileen Schroeder October 2002. Model of communication. Distance education is based on the model of communication: Instructional ideas encoded in some transmittable form (spoken word, pictures, writing)

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Distance education technologies

Distance Education Technologies

Eileen Schroeder

October 2002

Model of communication
Model of communication

  • Distance education is based on the model of communication:

    • Instructional ideas encoded in some transmittable form (spoken word, pictures, writing)

    • Sent to learner over channel (e.g., wire, hand delivered, broadcast over the air)

    • Media allows communication over a distance or at a different time

    • Learner provides feedback on messages (interaction)

    • Minimize and interference in communication - use multiple channels such as auditory, visual, textual

Dale s cone of experience
Dale’s Cone of Experience

  • This model categorizes the ability of media to convey information

  • Children respond best to direct, purposeful experiences because they lack previous experiences to refer to whereas older students can handle less realistic and more abstract messages

  • When new information is presented, it is best to be as realistic as possible

  • But more realistic is less efficient in terms of uses of resources and may be less effective due to distractions of realistic instruction

  • Must determine how to be only as realistic as needed to learn effectively

Taxonomy of technologies
Taxonomy of Technologies

  • Different time, different place, limited interaction:

    • Correspondence courses

      • Uses mail system (snail mail or email) to connect teacher and learner asynchronously

      • Learner receives lessons, readings, and assignments, completes independently, sends in for grading

    • Prerecorded media

      • Pictures and graphics, audiotapes, videotapes sent to distance learners with correspondence study guide

Taxonomy of technologies1
Taxonomy of Technologies

  • Same time, different place, some interaction

    • Two-way audio (with and without graphics)

      • Phone or radio with telephone call-in, or short wave -- live

      • Added graphics- electronic drawing board or computer

    • One-way live audio

      • Often accompanied by packets of printed materials

      • May have telephone office hours but generally just complete assignments

    • Two-way audio, one-way video

      • ITFS or community cable networks or teleconferences (satellite)

      • Connect synchronously to many locations

      • Toll-free phone number and packet of materials

Taxonomy of newer technologies
Taxonomy of Newer Technologies

  • Different place, same time:

    • Two-way audio/video

      • Compressed video (fewer than 30 fps, over T1 line) OR uncompressed, full motion (uses fiber optics - DS3)

      • Special classroom - audio and video equipment with CODEC at each site -- expensive, cumbersome

      • Generally school districts belong to a distance education network and share courses with other schools in that network

      • Need to reserve special rooms and network time

A typical distance education classroom
A typical distance education classroom

  • University of Wisconsin- Whitewater

  • Compressed video using PictureTel system

  • Connects with other UW System campuses

  • Used for

    • Entire courses

    • Individual classes

    • Meetings

    • Professional development

Taxonomy of newer technologies1
Taxonomy of Newer Technologies

  • Different place, same time:

    • Desktop two-way audio/video

      • Use personal computers

      • Can use reflector sites to connect multiple sites

      • Free or inexpensive: CUSeeMe -- low quality

      • Need camera with each computer

      • Over 56K modem - only low speed is possible, poor quality

      • Transmitting at 126K or 256K (ISDN) - medium speed, uses compression

      • Over Internet: limited ability to carry high quality video, will change as bandwidth increases

Taxonomy of newer technologies2
Taxonomy of Newer Technologies

  • Different time, different place

    • Computer-mediated without audio or video

      • Could incorporate chat to make it synchronous

      • Asynchronous discussions, email, course content, student assignments, testing, multimedia resources, track student progress

      • Course management software

        • WebCT

        • BlackBoard

        • BigChalk

      • Some entire virtual schools have begun to appear

Virtual schools
Virtual Schools

  • Kentucky Virtual High School (see virtual library)

    • http://www.kvhs.org/

  • Florida Virtual School

    • http://www.flvs.net/

  • Wisconsin Connections Academy (Appleton)

    • http://www.connectionsacademy.org/wi/about/default.asp

  • Maryland Virtual High School (science & math)

    • http://mvhs1.mbhs.edu/

  • Choice 2000 Charter School

    • http://www.choice2000.org/

More information
More Information

  • Online Teaching and Learning

    • www.ion.illinois.edu/resources/olo/index.html

  • Distance Education Clearinghouse

    • http://www.uwex.edu/disted/home.html

  • Distance-Educator.com

    • http://www.distance-educator.com/