General Finding in Heliospheric Realm. Nat Gopalswamy. William Liu: Kuafu. Kuafu A @ L1(Ly-alpha imager, Ly-alpha + inner coronagraph, outer coronagraph); 3-axis, 722 kg total; 130 kg payload Kuafu B in double Molnya orbit (auroral arcs, vortices, turbulence) – anticipated
Synthetic aperture radio telescope (with ‘clock scan’ scheme)
Big Ellipse Transfer Jupiter Gravity Assist
Solar Polar Orbit
(Proper) magnetic memory in the dynamo
(Proper) approach to derive the poloidal source from observation
main diff. between two predictions
Tricky, important … problem !!
Generation of poloidal field: nonlinear effects to modulate & Random effects
Huadong Chen, Jun Zhang, & Suli Ma
The main results are:
Also current sheet by Zhao
S.-L. Ma in a polar coronal hole observed by SDO/AIA
GS method in a polar coronal hole observed by SDO/AIA
Leamon et al. 04
Lynch et al. 05
P ~ r
Prominence Signature in MCs in a polar coronal hole observed by SDO/AIA
High Np and low Tp
Located at the center of the flux rope
Existence of He+
Heating before and after prominence material
1979DOY129, at 0.3 AU
1976 DOY 90, at 0.5 AU
1978DOY358, at 0.7 AU
In situ measurement
Gopalswamy SpaceSciRev, 2006
Yao et al., 2010, JGR
Surface Magnetic Field
Nandy, Muñoz-Jaramillo & Martens, Nature, 471, 80 (2010).
Choudhuri et al. (2007)
Advection dominated Dikpati et al. (2006)
CME Interaction, in a polar coronal hole observed by SDO/AIA
IT IS VERY LIKELY THAT SPACE-HARZARD EVENTS ARE CAUSED BY “TWIN-CMES” WHERE TWO CMES OCCUR CLOSELY IN TIME (9 HOURS) FROM THE SAME ACTIVE REGION.
Recipe for GLE event
1) first CME/shock setup a strong turbulence upstream the second CME/shock.
2) open closed magnetic reconnection brings out driver material which is heavy ion rich.
3) the second shock has to go through the turbulence-enhanced region.
This give us a very powerful predictability on Space weather!
horizontal pattern: empirical model in a polar coronal hole observed by SDO/AIA
based on satellite data and Kp
-> particle distribution on top of atmosphereAIMOS - Model conceptionAtmospheric Ionization Module OSnabrück (http://aimos.physik.uos.de)
vertical pattern: numerical model
-> ionization of single particle injections
empirical model + numerical model
-> atmospheric ionization of full particle inventory, worldwide, continuous from 2002
AIMOS+GCM vs. measurements
here: electron density compared to radars
el. density in high atmosphere compared to radars
NOy in lower atmosphere compared to MIPAS
Kperp/kpar = 10% in a polar coronal hole observed by SDO/AIA
Nov 4, 2003: X28+, April 2, 2001: X20
lowlat aurora, outage, pipeline currents reach 100s of A