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Phylum Porifera - Sponges

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Phylum Porifera - Sponges. Among the most ancient animals Mostly marine but some fresh water Porifera - literally means “pore bearer”, which is appropriate because they have tiny openings all over their body Once thought to be plants because they are sessile . What are Sponges?.

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Among the most ancient animals

  • Mostly marine but some fresh water
  • Porifera- literally means “pore bearer”, which is appropriate because they have tiny openings all over their body
  • Once thought to be plants because they are sessile
what are sponges
What are Sponges?
  • Multicellular, heterotrophic animals
  • They are very different from other animals
  • Scientist believe that the evolutionary line that lead to sponges is a dead end and produced no other animals
phylum porifera internal structures
Phylum Porifera – Internal Structures

Porocytes = pore cells

Choanocyte = collar cell

Spongocoel = central cavity

Mesohyl = jelly-like inner layer

1 body symmetry
1. Body Symmetry
  • Asymetrical (no symmetry)
2 level of body organization
2. Level of body organization
  • Cellular- assemblage of specialized cells
  • No tissues
  • No organs
3 body cavities coeloms
3. Body Cavities/ Coeloms
  • Nothing that resembles a mouth or gut
feeding
Feeding
  • Filter feeders – microscopic particles stick to collar cells and engulfed by endocytosis
  • Then passed on to amebocytes where it is digested and moved on to other parts of the cell
respiration
Respiration
  • Water that flows through the sponge allows it to absorb oxygen and release CO2 into the water
internal transport
Internal Transport
  • Mostly done by the water that is filtered through sponges
  • Amebocytes
excretion
Excretion
  • Metabolic waste is also carried away by the water that is moved through the sponge
response
Response
  • No nerve system
  • Do not respond to stimuli
movement
Movement
  • Sessile
  • Attached to the substrate
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Reproduce asexually and sexually
  • Formation of gemmules
asexual
Asexual
  • Reproduce by budding (really it is fragmentation) - part of the sponge simply falls off the parent and grows into a new sponge
gemmule formation
Gemmule Formation
  • When faced with cold winters gemmules are formed
  • Sphere shaped collections of amebocytes surrounded by a tough layer of spicules that can survive cold temperatures and drought
  • Reform into a sponge when conditions are favourable
sexual
Sexual
  • Sperm are released into the water via the osculum
  • Amebocytes collect the incoming sperm and deliver it to the eggs in the body wall
  • Creates a zygote
  • Develops into a larvae that swims and is carried away by water
  • Later settle down and create a new sponge
boring sponges
Boring Sponges
  • Clean up the ocean floor
symbiotic relationships
Symbiotic relationships
  • Blue-green algae
  • Plant like protists
  • Provide oxygen to the sponge and clean up waste
human use
Human Use
  • Cleaned dried sponges can be used for bathing
  • A compound in a Caribbean sponge may be useful against leukemia and the herpes virus
  • May be the answer to powerful antibiotics
  • Can possibly fight against certain forms of arthritis
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