Phylum Porifera
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Phylum Porifera - Sponges PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Phylum Porifera - Sponges. Among the most ancient animals Mostly marine but some fresh water Porifera - literally means “pore bearer”, which is appropriate because they have tiny openings all over their body Once thought to be plants because they are sessile . What are Sponges?.

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Phylum Porifera - Sponges

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Phylum porifera sponges

Phylum Porifera-Sponges


Phylum porifera sponges

  • Among the most ancient animals

  • Mostly marine but some fresh water

  • Porifera- literally means “pore bearer”, which is appropriate because they have tiny openings all over their body

  • Once thought to be plants because they are sessile


What are sponges

What are Sponges?

  • Multicellular, heterotrophic animals

  • They are very different from other animals

  • Scientist believe that the evolutionary line that lead to sponges is a dead end and produced no other animals


Phylum porifera internal structures

Phylum Porifera – Internal Structures

Porocytes = pore cells

Choanocyte = collar cell

Spongocoel = central cavity

Mesohyl = jelly-like inner layer


1 body symmetry

1. Body Symmetry

  • Asymetrical (no symmetry)


2 level of body organization

2. Level of body organization

  • Cellular- assemblage of specialized cells

  • No tissues

  • No organs


3 body cavities coeloms

3. Body Cavities/ Coeloms

  • Nothing that resembles a mouth or gut


Feeding

Feeding

  • Filter feeders – microscopic particles stick to collar cells and engulfed by endocytosis

  • Then passed on to amebocytes where it is digested and moved on to other parts of the cell


Respiration

Respiration

  • Water that flows through the sponge allows it to absorb oxygen and release CO2 into the water


Internal transport

Internal Transport

  • Mostly done by the water that is filtered through sponges

  • Amebocytes


Excretion

Excretion

  • Metabolic waste is also carried away by the water that is moved through the sponge


Response

Response

  • No nerve system

  • Do not respond to stimuli


Movement

Movement

  • Sessile

  • Attached to the substrate


Reproduction

Reproduction

  • Reproduce asexually and sexually

  • Formation of gemmules


Asexual

Asexual

  • Reproduce by budding (really it is fragmentation) - part of the sponge simply falls off the parent and grows into a new sponge


Gemmule formation

Gemmule Formation

  • When faced with cold winters gemmules are formed

  • Sphere shaped collections of amebocytes surrounded by a tough layer of spicules that can survive cold temperatures and drought

  • Reform into a sponge when conditions are favourable


Sexual

Sexual

  • Sperm are released into the water via the osculum

  • Amebocytes collect the incoming sperm and deliver it to the eggs in the body wall

  • Creates a zygote

  • Develops into a larvae that swims and is carried away by water

  • Later settle down and create a new sponge


Boring sponges

Boring Sponges

  • Clean up the ocean floor


Symbiotic relationships

Symbiotic relationships

  • Blue-green algae

  • Plant like protists

  • Provide oxygen to the sponge and clean up waste


Human use

Human Use

  • Cleaned dried sponges can be used for bathing

  • A compound in a Caribbean sponge may be useful against leukemia and the herpes virus

  • May be the answer to powerful antibiotics

  • Can possibly fight against certain forms of arthritis


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