Animal Nutrition Mc Donald, Greehalgh and Warner. 1987. Animal Nutrition. Longman. تغذيه دام. Remember…. Water Carbohydrates Lipids Protein Minerals Vitamins. WATER (H 2 0). Water (H 2 O). Overlook when formulating rations—assumed animals have access to good quality water
2. Water contained in feeds
- Results from the oxidation of organic nutrients in the tissues
Amino Acid (AA)
Protein (2 AA joined by peptide
bond between carboxyl
and amino group
1. Essential Amino Acids (EAA):
2. Nonessential AA
3. Semi-essential AA
1. Tissue protein synthesis
2. Synthesis of enzymes, hormones & other metabolites
3. Use for energy (inefficient energy source)
B Complex Vitamins
- Sheep, Cattle, Horses
- Swine, Chickens, Humans
Monogastrics – Major Category
Ruminants – Cattle, Sheep, Goats
Figure 6–3: Swine digestive tract.
Figure 6–7: Digestive system of the avian.
Ruminants: 4 compartment “stomach” capacity -Chemical secretions and enzymes are critical for digestion -limited microbial action, limited fiber digestion
-Designed for fiber digestion with a high capacity
-microorganisms in rumen to digest fiber – symbiotic relationship
Capacities of different parts?
Figure 6–4: Digestive system of the ruminant.
Mouth – like swine, no enzymes
1. Reticulum (honeycomb)
- hardware disease?
2. Rumen (fermentation vat)
Functions of the Rumen:
Functions of the Rumen - continued:
Digestive System Parts and Functions - Ruminants capacity -Chemical secretions and enzymes are critical for digestion -limited microbial action, limited fiber digestion
Is the rumen functional in newborn ruminants???
Figure 6–5: Side view (right side) of the rumen.
Stomach compartments - continued
3. Omasum (manyplies)
- adds water to or absorbs water from rumen contents
4. Abomasum (true stomach)
-performs very similar functions as in monogastric animals
Functions of the Cecum
– less efficient than rumen
6 major classes
Figure 5–1: The essential nutrients. capacity -Chemical secretions and enzymes are critical for digestion -limited microbial action, limited fiber digestion
1Mnemonic device for remembering essential amino acids 5 MATT HILL VP.
2For poultry, two additional amino acids are needed: glycine and proline.
3Arachidonic acid can be synthesized from linoleic acid if it is available so it is only essential if linoleic acid is absent or in short supply.
4Authors vary on whether or not to list sulfur as a macromineral or micromineral. The discrepancy arises because only a very small amount of inorganic S is needed but the sulfur-containing amino acids (organic S) are needed in larger quantities.
source of energy
Nutrients capacity -Chemical secretions and enzymes are critical for digestion -limited microbial action, limited fiber digestion
Figure 5–1: 1Mnemonic device for remembering essential amino acids 5 MATT HILL VP.
Function of Proteins
- muscle; bone; connective tissue; hormones; enzymes; antibodies; milk components; cell repair
-part of some amino acids & vitamins; metabolic reactions; enzyme function; body structure; transport oxygen
White hair on black cattle
=selenium and Vitamin E
Figure 5–9: Schematic diagram for partitioning energy values of feeds. (Source: Adapted from Wagner, 1977. Used with permission.)
Largest % of herbivores
Volatile Fatty ACIDS
Stomach complex con’t
MO’s values of feeds. (Digestion in the Ruminant
H values of feeds. (
HDigestion in the Ruminant
8 hr values of feeds. (
per dayRumination Process
Define = set of steps that reduce particle size of digesta for passage to lower tract
GAS values of feeds. (