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Public Health Emergency Response Guide. สถานการณ์.

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slide2
สถานการณ์

ท่านเป็นผู้รับผิดชอบด้านการควบคุมโรคในจังหวัด ได้รับรายงานว่ามีผู้ป่วยเสียชีวิตจากอาการปอดอักเสบและติดเชื้อทางเดินหายใจ ที่โรงพยาบาลศูนย์ ๓-๔ รายพร้อมๆกัน ผู้ป่วยมีอาการไข้สูง หายใจหอบเหนื่อย การหายใจล้มเหลว จนเสียชีวิตอย่างรวดเร็ว ภายใน ๒-๓ วันหลังจากเริ่มมีอาการ และขณะนี้พบว่ามีผู้ป่วยที่เริ่มมีอาการติดเชื้อทางเดินหายใจมารับการรักษามากขึ้นกว่าปกติ จากการประเมินสถานการณ์แล้ว ท่านคาดว่าอาจเป็นโรคติดต่อทางเดินหายใจที่รุนแรง จนเป็นภาวะฉุกเฉินทางสาธารณสุขได้ จึงเสนอให้เปิดศูนย์ตอบโต้สถานการฉุกเฉินทางสาธารณสุข

ในการตอบโต้เหตุการณ์นี้ท่านมีแนวทางปฏิบัติอย่างไร?

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วัตถุประสงค์
  • บุคคลากรสาธารณสุขที่เกี่ยวข้องกับการตอบโต้ภาวะฉุกเฉินทางสาธารณสุข สามารถริเริ่มกิจกรรมการตอบโต้สถานการณ์ฉุกเฉินภายใน ๒๔ ชั่วโมงแรกได้อย่างถูกต้อง
  • สามารถปรับใช้แผนปฏิบัติการฉุกเฉิน, แนวทางปฏิบัติ, ทรัพยากรที่เกี่ยวข้อง, และระบบการตอบโต้เหตุการณ์ ให้เข้ากับสถานการณ์
  • สามารถประสานการปฏิบัติตามแผนกับหน่วยงานที่เกี่ยวข้องและชุมชนได้อย่างถูกต้อง
scope
Scope
  • Public Health Emergency Preparedness Assumption
  • Public Health Emergency Response Functions and Tasks during the Acute Phase
  • Ongoing Public Health Emergency Response Functions and Tasks
focus on first 24 hours
Focus on First 24 Hours
  • Three response timeframe
  • Immediate (Hours 0-2)
  • Intermediate (Hours 2-6 and 6-12)
  • Extended (Hours 12-24)
public health emergency preparedness assumption
Public Health Emergency Preparedness Assumption
  • Public Health Department must engage in preparedness activities
  • Completion of the following activities prior to an incident is essential to a successful response effort
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Establish close working relationship and mutual-aid agreement with:
    • Emergency management agency (EMA)
    • Emergency Medical Service (EMS)
    • Medical/Health/Behavioral care providers
    • Fire, Law enforcement, and Other organizations
    • Local Emergency Planning Committee
    • NGOs, Volunteers, Neighboring, etc.
slide9
Participate in hazard vulnerability and risk assessment for your area(s).
  • Conduct capacity assessment
  • Acquire resources and surge capacity
  • Develop plans, procedure, guideline that are consistent with those used by other response agencies and organizations
  • Develop operational objectives for PHER
  • Develop basic system for surveillances and registry with appropriate archiving systems
slide10
Develop plans, procedures, guidelines for public affairs and risk communication
  • Engage in resource typing and credentialing for personnel, resources, and assets for emergency response
  • Ensure that public health personnel are trained and certified in safety and health practice (PPE, on-scene)
slide11
Provide orientation and training to public health response personnel
  • Participate in planning, design, and conduct exercises to evaluate PHEP&R
  • Participate in after action reviews of exercise and actual incidents
immediate response hours 0 2
Immediate Response: Hours 0-2
  • Assess situation
  • Contact key health personnel
  • Develop initial health response objectives and Establish an action plan
  • Public health participation in Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
  • Ensure that the site health and safety plan (HASP) is established, reviewed, and followed
immediate response hours 0 21
Immediate Response: Hours 0-2
  • Establish communications with key health and medical organization
  • Assign and deploy resources and assets to achieved established initial health response objectives
  • Address requests for assistance and information
  • Initiate risk communication activities
public messages in crisis
Public Messages in Crisis
  • STARCC Principle
  • S: Simple
  • T: Timely
  • A: Accurate
  • R: Relevant
  • C: Credible
  • C: Consistent

Source: Reynolds, B., Crisis and Emergency Risk

Communication by Leaders for Leaders. Atlanta, GA:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004

slide15
When engaging in risk communication, build trust and credibility by expressing . . .
  • Empathy & Caring
  • Competence & Expertise
  • Honesty & Openness
  • Commitment & Dedication
top tips
Top Tips.
  • Don’t over reassure
  • Acknowledge uncertainty
  • Express wishes (“I wish I had answers”)
  • Explain the process in place to find answers
  • Acknowledge people’s fear
  • Give people things to do
  • Ask more of people (share risk)
as a spokesperson
As a spokesperson
  • Know your organization policies
  • Stay within the scope of responsibility
  • Tell the truth. Be transparent
  • Embody your agency’s identity

CONSISTENT MESSAGE ARE VITAL

Source: Reynolds, B., Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2002.

immediate response hours 0 22
Immediate Response: Hours 0-2
  • Engage legal counsel as part of the emergency response effort
  • Document all response activities
intermediate response hours 2 6
Intermediate Response: Hours 2 – 6
  • Verify that health surveillance systems are operational
  • Ensure that laboratories likely to be used during the response are operational and verify their analytical capacity
  • Ensure that the needs of special populations are being addressed
intermediate response hours 2 61
Intermediate Response: Hours 2 – 6
  • Health-related volunteers and donations
  • Update risk communication messages
intermediate response hours 6 12
Intermediate Response:Hours 6 – 12
  • Collect and analyze data that are becoming available through health surveillance and laboratory systems
  • Prepare and update information for shift change and executive briefings
intermediate response hours 6 121
Intermediate Response:Hours 6 – 12
  • Prepare for state and federal on-site assistance
  • Assess health resource needs and acquire as necessary
extended response hours 12 24
Extended Response: Hours 12 – 24
  • Address mental and behavioral health support needs
  • Prepare for transition to extended operations or response disengagement
ongoing public health emergency response functions and tasks
ONGOING PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY RESPONSE FUNCTIONS AND TASKS
  • Environmental hazard identification
  • Hazards consultation
  • Epidemiological services
  • Health and medical needs assessment
  • Identification of affected individuals
ongoing public health emergency response functions and tasks1
ONGOING PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY RESPONSE FUNCTIONS AND TASKS
  • Contamination control
  • Health surveillance
  • Laboratory specimen collection and analysis
  • Infectious disease identification, treatment, and control
ongoing public health emergency response functions and tasks2
ONGOING PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY RESPONSE FUNCTIONS AND TASKS
  • Quarantine/Isolation
  • Public health information
  • Risk communication
  • Responder safety and health
  • Health and medical personnel resources
ongoing public health emergency response functions and tasks3
ONGOING PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY RESPONSE FUNCTIONS AND TASKS
  • Health and medical equipment safety and availability
  • Health-related volunteer and donation
  • Coordination
  • In-hospital care
  • Evacuation
ongoing public health emergency response functions and tasks4
ONGOING PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY RESPONSE FUNCTIONS AND TASKS
  • Sheltering
  • Special populations needs and assistance
  • Mass trauma
  • Mass fatality
  • Mortuary service
ongoing public health emergency response functions and tasks5
ONGOING PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY RESPONSE FUNCTIONS AND TASKS
  • Mental/behavioral health care and social services
  • Potable water
  • Food safety
  • Vector control and pest management disposal
ongoing public health emergency response functions and tasks6
ONGOING PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY RESPONSE FUNCTIONS AND TASKS
  • Wastewater and solid-waste management/ disposal
  • Building/facility assessment
  • Sanitation/hygiene service
  • Continuity of public health programs, services, and infrastructure
ongoing public health emergency response functions and tasks7
ONGOING PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY RESPONSE FUNCTIONS AND TASKS
  • Veterinary services
  • Animal rescue/control/shelters
  • Long-term community recovery
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