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ITC Sudan Project Geoffrey T. Fong, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University of Waterloo. ITC-TTURC Project Annual Meeting Portland, Oregon—March 1, 2008. Sudan—Background Information. Population = 41,236,378 Income Group = LOW Tobacco Prevalence (2005) :

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ITC Sudan Project Geoffrey T. Fong, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University of Waterloo

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Itc sudan project geoffrey t fong ph d department of psychology university of waterloo

ITC Sudan Project

Geoffrey T. Fong, Ph.D.

Department of Psychology

University of Waterloo

ITC-TTURC Project Annual Meeting

Portland, Oregon—March 1, 2008


Sudan background information

Sudan—Background Information

Population = 41,236,378 Income Group = LOW

Tobacco Prevalence (2005):

Adults: NO ADULT DATA AVAILABLE

Youth (From GYTS): Males 18.0%; Females 10.1%

FCTC Status: Signed Jun 10, 2004; Ratified Oct 31, 2005

FCTC Policies:

– Warning Labels: U.S.style

– Smoke Free: No law

– Ad/Promo: “Complete ban”; Enforcement = 1/10


Sudan background information1

Sudan—Background Information

Population = 41,236,378 Income Group = LOW

Tobacco Prevalence (2005):

Adults: NO ADULT DATA AVAILABLE

Youth (From GYTS): Males 18.0%; Females 10.1%

FCTC Status: Signed Jun 10, 2004; Ratified Oct 31, 2005

FCTC Policies:

– Warning Labels: U.S.style

– Smoke Free: No law

– Ad/Promo: “Complete ban”; Enforcement = 1/10

– Price: $5.38/pack; 7%; Taxes = ???


Why sudan

Why Sudan?

  • First country in Africa

  • Highly divergent geographical regions: North vs. South

  • Low-income country, but with an excellent research centre (with strong connections globally)

  • No information on (adult) prevalence of tobacco use

  • Interesting mix of tobacco types: cigarettes, shisha, toombak


Major non cigarette forms of tobacco use

Major non-cigarette forms of tobacco use


Why sudan1

Why Sudan?

  • First country in Africa

  • Highly divergent geographical regions: North vs. South

  • Low-income country, but with an excellent research centre (with strong connections globally)

  • No information on (adult) prevalence of tobacco use

  • Interesting mix of tobacco types: cigarettes, shisha, toombak

  • Women are predominant shisha smokers

  • Economic changes in Sudan: (1) greater interest from the industry in this market? (2) changes in smoking patterns over time

  • Sudan is a party to the FCTC: policies are being planned; opportunity to make direct contributions to the shape of those policies


Itc sudan survey

ITC Sudan Survey

• 6 sampling areas: 5 cities and surrounding urban areas:

– Central: Khartoum

– North: Red Sea State (Port Sudan)

– East: Al Jazeera State (Wad Medani)

– West: North Kurdofan State

– South: Juba

+ Internally displaced persons camp (IDP)

  • In each area 500-600 tobacco users (cigarettes, shisha, toombak) and 200-300 non-users

  • Face-to-face interviewing; multistage cluster sampling design

  • Planned 10 minute short interview and 30-45 minute long interview; face-to-face

  • Full enumeration of households—>prevalence estimates

    •3 annual survey waves


Itc sudan survey research team

ITC Sudan Survey—Research Team

  • Epilab—Dr. Asma El Sony, Director (past President of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases—recipient of the Bloomberg Initiative’s research grants program funding)


Itc sudan survey funding

ITC Sudan Survey—Funding

  • Currently seeking funding: need about $140K/year

  • Asma El Sony is optimistic about possibilities for funding

    – World Bank—>Sudan: $10,000 in first year

    – IDRC

    – DFID

    – Bloomberg


Itc sudan survey challenges

ITC Sudan Survey—Challenges

  • Very good team, with good record, but unclear about how the interviewing team will work with our challenging protocol: training and quality control will be critical

  • Literacy and comprehension issues with the population; need to pilot test the survey (probably multiple iterations)

  • Challenges of conducting surveys among some very poverty-stricken areas, including the IDP camps

  • Language issues (although the Sudan team members are quite fluent in English)


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