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Session 15

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Agenda:

- Questions from 8.1-8.2?
- 8.3 – Trigonometric Identities
- 8.4 – Graphs of Trigonometric Functions
- 8.5 – Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Things to do before our next meeting.

- Summary of Trig Identities Already Seen:

- When simplifying trig functions, other techniques such as finding common denominators and factoring may still need to be used.
- Simplify the following to a single trig function

- The following identities are obtained by dividing the fundamental identity by either or .

For any x, find the value of:

- Use a double angle identity to simplify the following to a an expression involving a single trig function.

- Given that and that x lies in Quadrant II, find the
value of .

- Given that θ is in Quadrant I and that , express
in terms of x.

- Express in terms of x.

- Domain: (-∞, ∞)
- Range: [-1, 1]
- Due to the nature of the unit circle, we know that many angles have the same sine value. Thus, the graph of the sine function repeats itself over and over. We refer to such functions as periodic. The period of the function is the length of the smallest interval that is repeated over and over to form the graph. For sine, the period is 2π.

- Domain: (-∞, ∞)
- Range: [-1, 1]
- Period: 2π

- Vertical Asymptotes:
where k is any odd integer.

- Range: (-∞, ∞)
- Period: π

- For example, we know that . The graph of
cosecant is shown below along with the graph of sine.

- Vertical Asymptotes:
where k is any integer.

- Range:
- Period: 2π

- We know that . The graph of secant is shown
below along with the graph of cosine.

- Vertical Asymptotes:
where k is any odd integer.

- Range:
- Period: 2π

- We know that .
- Vertical Asymptotes:
where k is any integer.

- Range: (-∞, ∞)
- Period: π

- All the transformations we have applied previously still hold for trigonometric functions.
- Examples:
-- Shift the graph of cosine to the left 3 and then vertically stretch by a factor of 3.

-- Shift the graph of sine to the right 2 and then reflect the graph across the x-axis.

-- Reflect the graph of tangent across the y-axis and then shift the graph up 4 units.

- We can also change the period of a trigonometric graph, which essentially means stretching or shrinking the graph horizontally.
- Consider the function . First note that this is NOT equal to . The k inside the function changes the period of the graph to .
- The graph to the right is the graph of . The period of this new graph is . The graph has been “shrunk” horizontally.

- For a function of the form , the same is true.
- Consider the function .
- The period of the function is
The graph was stretched horizontally.

- The final step is to stretch the graph vertically by a factor of 2 so that its range is now [-2, 2].

- Since the graph of tangent has a period of π, then a function of the form has a period of .
- Consider the function .
- The first thing that is done is to change the period to , essentially shrinking the graph horizontally.

The second thing done is to The last thing to be done shift the graph to the right . is to reflect the graph across the x-axis.

- If a function is written in a form such as ,
you must first factor out the 3 to obtain .

This would give you a period of and a shift left of .

- Although sine, cosine, and tangent are NOT one-to-one functions, we can restrict the domains of each of them to obtain a one-to-one function that still encompasses the whole range of each function. The restricted domains are:
- Now that we have restricted each to a one-to-one function, we can define an inverse function for each.

- The notation for the inverse sine function is
- The function is defined by:
- Essentially, this means that is the ANGLE whose sine is x.
- The graph of the is shown.
- Domain: [-1, 1] (was range of sine)
- Range: (was restricted domain of sine)
- IMPORTANT: Although there are many angles which have the same sine value, by definition, the angle chosen for the arcsine function must be in the interval , i.e., Quadrants I and IV on the unit circle.

- The notation for the inverse cosine function is
- The function is defined by:
- Essentially, this means that is the ANGLE whose cosine is x.
- The graph of the is shown.
- Domain: [-1, 1]
- Range:
- IMPORTANT: Although there are many angles which have the same cosine value, by definition, the angle chosen for the arccosine function must be in the interval , i.e., Quadrants I and II on the unit circle.

- The notation for the inverse tangent function is
- The function is defined by:
- Essentially, this means that is the ANGLE whose tangent is x.
- The graph of the is shown.
- Domain: (-∞, ∞)
- Range: ; Hor. Asymptotes:
- IMPORTANT: Although there are many angles which have the same tangent value, by definition, the angle chosen for the arctangent function must be in the interval , i.e., Quadrants I and IV on the unit circle.

- For arccsc(x) and arcsec(x), you can rewrite the function in terms of arcsin(x) and arccos(x).
- Examples:

- The graph of cot(x) (with restricted domain in red) and arccot(x) are shown below.
Domain: (0, π) Domain: (-∞, ∞)

Range: (-∞, ∞) Range: (0, π) [Quad. I and II

on unit circle.]

- Evaluate .

- Express the following as an algebraic expression involving only x. [Hint: First draw a right triangle where an acute angle has a sine of x.]
- Are there any domain restrictions on x?

- Work on Sections 8.3-8.5 until you get all green bars!!
- Write down any questions you have.
- Continue working on mastering 8.1-8.2.