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Prepared by: Jeremy Hubbard Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University

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Prepared by: Jeremy Hubbard Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University E: [email protected]; F: (435)797-3054 (ECE Dept.). ECE5320 Mechatronics Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Global Positioning System. 3/7/2008.

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slide1

Prepared by:

Jeremy Hubbard

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Utah State University

E: [email protected];

F: (435)797-3054 (ECE Dept.)

ECE5320 MechatronicsAssignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Global Positioning System

3/7/2008

outline
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsOutline
  • Reference list
  • To probe further
  • Major applications
  • Basic working principle illustrated
  • A sample configuration
  • Major specifications
  • Limitations
reference list
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsReference list
  • http://www.gps.gov/
  • http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_f.html
  • http://aprs.gids.nl/nmea/
major applications
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsMajor applications
  • Outdoor position sensing
    • UAV position
    • Car Navigation
    • Backwoods Navigation
  • Timing
    • Precise worldwide timing
  • Surveying
  • etc...
basic working principle illustrated
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsBasic working principle illustrated
  • Constellation of satellites constantly sends out extremely accurate time information along with orbital information.
  • Using triangulation based on the doppler effect the precise position of almost any place on earth can be calculated.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ConstellationGPS.gif

basic working principle
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsBasic working principle
  • The satellites transmit data in frames and subframes for the GPS receivers to decode

http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_f.html

a typical sample configuration
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsA typical sample configuration
  • The data is transmitted serially to a microcontroller
  • Microcontroller parses data to get position
  • http://phy5ics.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/gps_bt_schematic_rev1.jpg
a typical sample configuration1
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsA typical sample configuration
  • Data from GPS is commonly output in NMEA format
  • For information on decoding NMEA sentences see: http://aprs.gids.nl/nmea/
  • Typical data included in NMEA sentences includes: signal quality, satellites in view, quality of position lock, latitude and longitude, ground speed, altitude, heading, time, and much other data.
major specifications
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsMajor specifications
  • Number of Channels (12-50)
  • Time to fix (seconds):
    • Hot start: 8
    • Warm start: 38
    • Cold start: 42
  • Output Protocol (NMEA or proprietary)
  • Antenna Gain
  • Receiver Sensitivity
major specifications cont
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsMajor Specifications (cont.)
  • Supply Voltage
  • Supply Current
  • Accuracy (0.001 m to 3.3+m)
  • Augmentations (WAAS, DGPS, EGNOS, MSAS)
  • Output type:
    • SPI
    • UART
limitations
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsLimitations
  • Accuracy is not high enough for many precision tasks
  • Update frequency may be to slow for many applications
  • Not always suitable indoors
gps accuracy
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsGPS Accuracy
  • Low-cost, single-receiver SPS projects (100 meter accuracy)
  • Medium-cost, differential SPS code Positioning (1-10 meter accuracy)
  • High-cost, single-receiver PPS projects (20 meter accuracy)
  • High-cost, differential carrier phase surveys (1 mm to 1 cm accuracy)
  • Prices range from about $50 to $50000
how to choose
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsHow to choose
  • Types of modules available:
    • GPS module
      • Antenna is onboard, easiest to interface with, typically a UART on a microcontroller is suitable
    • OEM module
      • Not mounted on a PCB, most customizable, but PCB may need to be designed for RF depending on the module and antenna chosen, additional components may be required.
how to choose cont
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsHow to choose (cont.)
  • Update frequency
    • Most modules update between 1Hz and 5Hz
  • System power
    • Typical modules run on 1.8, 3.3, or 5 V
    • Current supply ranges from 20mA to 100mA
  • Required accuracy, major determination of cost
  • TTFF
  • Antenna gain high enough for the application
where to buy
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuatorsWhere to Buy
  • www.sparkfun.com
  • www.digikey.com
  • www.mouser.com
  • http://www.usglobalsat.com/c-43-engine-boards-modules.aspx
  • Various other online retailers
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