Child work and labor among orphaned and abandoned children in 5 less wealthy nations
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Child Work and Labor among Orphaned and Abandoned Children in 5 Less Wealthy Nations. Rachel Whetten , MPH Center for Health Policy and Inequalities Research Duke University Tuesday, April 5 th 2011. Children and Work – What do we know?. 215 Million children - child labor

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Child work and labor among orphaned and abandoned children in 5 less wealthy nations
Child Work and Labor among Orphaned and Abandoned Children in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

Rachel Whetten, MPH

Center for Health Policy and Inequalities Research

Duke University

Tuesday, April 5th 2011


Children and work what do we know
Children and Work in 5 Less Wealthy Nations – What do we know?

  • 215 Million children - child labor

  • 2004-2008 - Recent decrease overall BUT increase by 7% in boys and ages 15-17 see 20% increase

  • Little empirical data related to OAC and child labor

  • Hypothesize OAC and child labor associations


What is work and what is too much work
What is work and what is ‘too much’ work? in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

  • UNICEF Definition of Child Labor (focus on health)

    • Hazardous work

    • 28 hrs/more a week of any kind of work (under age 15)

  • ILO - fewer hours used as cut-off (worried about education)

  • Unpaid labor/chores


Positive outcomes for orphans pofo
Positive Outcomes for Orphans - POFO in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

Longitudinal study over 3000 children to examine the effects of:

  • life events

  • Placement (family, inst, alt. care)

  • caregiver characteristics

  • cultural setting

    on the children’s: 1) behavioral and emotional adjustment; 2) learning and development; and 3) health outcomes


Pofo methods sample
POFO Methods - Sample in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

  • Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO) sampled 1,480 OAC ages 6-12 living in family settings in 309 randomly selected clusters in 5 countries (6 sites): India (Hyderabad, Nagaland), Cambodia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania

  • 50 sampling ‘clusters’

  • Geographic and political boundaries

  • Four of six clusters equal urban/rural split


Pofo sampling cont definitions
POFO – Sampling cont. definitions in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

  • Family dwelling selection: single or double orphan or child abandoned by both parents who was living in a family situation as opposed to an institution or on the streets

  • Five children from each sampling ‘cluster’; chosen from available list or house-to-house census

  • Caregiver Selection: Children’s self-identified primary caregiver (n=1480)


Pofo methods
POFO –Methods in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

  • Interviewers trained

  • Baseline data collected between May 2006 and April 2007 continues thru 2008

  • Informed Consent by all caregivers

  • Assent by all children

  • Ethical approval by Duke University IRB and local and national IRB’s at each site


Pofo child labor measures
POFO – Child Labor Measures in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

  • Child Measures: caregivers reported on demographics, school attendance, relationships to caregiver(s), child health


Child labor measures
Child Labor Measures in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

  • Child labor measures: ask caregiver:

    “During the past week did the child do any kind of work for anyone who is not a member of this household?”

    “During the past week did child engage in household chores such as farming, child care or other housework?”

    “Approximately how many hours for each activity?”


Caregiver measures
Caregiver Measures in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

  • Caregivers reported on: demographics, education, health, income, and # of children they care for

  • Wealth Index constructed comparable to DHS summarizing assets and physical characteristics of households


Child characteristics
Child Characteristics in 5 Less Wealthy Nations


Caregiver characteristics
Caregiver Characteristics in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

  • Majority are female (85.3%) and avg. 42.5 years old

  • More than half widowed (61.3%)

  • 46.5% reported in good or very good health; 19.9% reported poor or very poor health

  • 29% reported no income

  • Mean years of education = 5.3

  • Caring for average of 3 children (sd=2.1)


Schooling associations
Schooling Associations in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

  • OAC not attending school were 4 times more likely to engage in child labor than those in school (AOR=5.04, not causal just association)

  • Children engaged in child labor were twice as likely to not attend school compared to those working less than 28 hours

  • School attendance significantly associated with working vs. not working, not associated with working < 21 hours or 21-27 hours therefore significance driven by child labor


Conclusions
Conclusions in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

  • OACs are at risk

  • One in seven OAC engaged in child labour.

  • female OAC, particularly in rural areas and poor households.

  • Target the family/household, not just the child/orphan – caregivers need care in order to care for the OACs


Conclusions1
Conclusions in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

  • Burden on girl children

  • Need to further examine influence of 21 – 27 hours of work on child schooling

  • Study supports UNICEF definition of 28 hours or more


Limitations
Limitations in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

  • Caregiver report thus possible under-representation

  • Lack of detail on work (Chores/work delineation and hazardous work)

  • Past week reference (seasonal differences in work/labor patterns)

  • Need longitudinal data to see if increased work burden results in decreased schooling and poor health


Nagaland District, IN in 5 Less Wealthy Nations

Hyderabad, IN

Battambang District, KH

Addis Ababa, ET

Bungoma District, KE

Kilimanjaro Region, TZ


http://pofostudy.org in 5 Less Wealthy Nations



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