The price system demand and supply and elasticity
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The Price System, Demand and Supply, and Elasticity. The Price System: Rationing and Allocating Resources. The market system, performs two important and closely related functions:

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The price system rationing and allocating resources
The Price System:Rationing and Allocating Resources

  • The market system, performs two important and closely related functions:

    • Resource allocation: the market system determines the allocation of resources among produces and the final mix of outputs.


The price system rationing and allocating resources1
The Price System:Rationing and Allocating Resources

  • The market system, performs two important and closely related functions:

  • Price rationing: the market system distributes goods and services on the basis of willingness and ability to pay.


Price rationing
Price Rationing

  • A decrease in supply creates a shortage at the original price.

  • The lower supply is rationed to those who are willing and able to pay the higher price.


Price rationing1
Price Rationing

  • There is some price that will clear any market.

  • The price of a rare painting will eliminate excess demand until there is only one bidder willing to buy the single available painting.


Constraints on the market
Constraints on the Market

  • A price ceiling is a maximum price that sellers may charge for a good, usually set by government.

  • In 1974, the government set a price ceiling to distribute the available supply of gasoline.

  • At an imposed price of 57 cents per gallon, the result was excess demand.


Alternative rationing mechanisms
Alternative Rationing Mechanisms

  • Queuing is a nonprice rationing system that uses waiting in line as a means of distributing goods and services.


Alternative rationing mechanisms1
Alternative Rationing Mechanisms

  • Favored customers are those who receive special treatment from dealers during situations when there is excess demand.

  • Ration coupons are tickets or coupons that entitle individuals to purchase a certain amount of a given product per month.


Alternative rationing mechanisms2
Alternative Rationing Mechanisms

  • Attempts to restrict prices often result in the evolution of a black market.

  • A black market is a market in which illegal trading takes place at market-determined prices.


Alternative rationing mechanisms3
Alternative Rationing Mechanisms

  • The problem with rationing systems is that excess demand is created but not eliminated.

  • No matter how good the intentions of private organizations and governments, it is very difficult to prevent the price system from operating and to stop the willingness to pay from asserting itself.


Prices and the allocation of resources
Prices and the Allocation of Resources

  • Price changes resulting from shifts of demand cause profits to rise or fall.

  • Profits attract capital; losses lead to disinvestment.

  • Higher wages attract labor and encourage workers to acquire skills.

  • At the core of the system, supply, demand, and prices in input and output markets determine the allocation of resources and the ultimate combinations of things produced.


Price floors
Price Floors

  • A price floor is a minimum price below which exchange is not permitted.

    • The most common example of a price floor is the minimum wage, which is a floor set under the price of labor.

  • The result of setting a price floor will be excess supply, or higher quantity supplied than quantity demanded.


Supply and demand analysis an oil import fee
Supply and Demand Analysis:An Oil Import Fee

  • At a world price of $18, imports are 5.9 million barrels per day.

  • The tax on imports causes an increase in domestic production, and quantity imported falls.


Supply and demand and market efficiency
Supply and Demandand Market Efficiency

  • Supply and demand curves can be used to illustrate the idea of market efficiency, an important aspect of “normative economics.”


Consumer surplus
Consumer Surplus

  • Consumer surplus is the difference between the maximum amount a person is willing to pay for a good and its current market price.


Consumer surplus1
Consumer Surplus

  • Some consumers are willing to pay as much as $5 each for hamburgers.

  • Since the price is only $2.50, they receive a consumer surplus of $2.50.


Consumer surplus2
Consumer Surplus

  • Others are willing to pay something less than $5.00 but more than $2.50.

  • Consumer surplus is the area below the demand curve and above the price level.


Producer surplus
Producer Surplus

  • Producer surplus is the difference between the maximum amount a producer is willing to accept to supply a good and its current market price.


Producer surplus1
Producer Surplus

  • Some producers are willing to accept as little as 75 cents each for hamburgers.

  • Since the price is $2.50, they receive a producer surplus of $1.75 per hamburger.


Producer surplus2
Producer Surplus

  • Others producers are willing to receive something less than $5.00 but higher than 75 cents.

  • Producer surplus is the area above the supply curve and below the price level.


Markets maximize the sum of producer and consumer surplus
Markets Maximize the Sum of Producer and Consumer Surplus

  • Total producer and consumer surplus is highest where supply and demand curves intersect at equilibrium.

  • Consumers receive benefits in excess of what they pay and producers receive compensation in excess of costs.


Markets maximize the sum of producer and consumer surplus1
Markets Maximize the Sum of Producer and Consumer Surplus

  • If the market produces too little, say 4 million instead of 7 million hamburgers per month, total producer and consumer surplus is reduced. This reduction (triangle ABC) is called a deadweight loss.


Potential causes of deadweight loss from under and overproduction
Potential Causes of Deadweight Loss From Under- and Overproduction

  • Deadweight losses can occur from under- and overproduction.

  • If the market produces 10 million instead of 7 million hamburgers per month, the cost of production rises above the willingness of consumers to pay, resulting in a deadweight loss.


Elasticity
Elasticity Overproduction

  • Elasticity is a general concept that can be used to quantify the response in one variable when another variable changes.


Price elasticity of demand
Price Elasticity of Demand Overproduction

  • A popular measure of elasticity is price elasticity of demand measures how responsive consumers are to changes in the price of a product.

  • The value of demand elasticity is always negative, but it is stated in absolute terms.


Slope and elasticity
Slope and Elasticity Overproduction

  • The value of the slope of the demand curve and the value of elasticity are not the same.

  • Unlike the value of the slope, the value of elasticity is a useful measure of responsiveness.


Slope and elasticity1
Slope and Elasticity Overproduction

  • Changing the units of measure yields a very different value of the slope, yet the behavior of buyers in both diagrams is identical.


Types of elasticity
Types of Elasticity Overproduction


Perfectly elastic and perfectly inelastic demand curves

When demand does not respond at all to a change in price, demand is perfectly inelastic.

Demand is perfectly elastic when quantity demanded drops to zero at the slightest increase in price.

Perfectly Elastic andPerfectly Inelastic Demand Curves


Calculating elasticities
Calculating Elasticities demand is

  • Calculating percentage changes:


Calculating elasticities1
Calculating Elasticities demand is

  • Elasticity is a ratio of percentages.

  • Using the values on the graph to compute elasticity, using percentage changes yields the following result:


Calculating elasticities2
Calculating Elasticities demand is

  • A more accurate way of computing elasticity than percentage changes is the midpoint formula:


Calculating elasticities3
Calculating Elasticities demand is

Here is how to interpret two different values of elasticity:

  • When e = 0.2, a 10% increase in price leads to a 2% decrease in quantity demanded.

  • When e = 2.0, a 10% increase in price leads to a 20% decrease in quantity demanded.


Elasticity changes along a straight line demand curve
Elasticity Changes along a demand is Straight-Line Demand Curve

  • Price elasticity of demand decreases as we move downward along a straight line demand curve.

  • Demand is elastic in the upper range and inelastic in the lower range of the line.


Elasticity changes along a straight line demand curve1
Elasticity Changes along a demand is Straight-Line Demand Curve

  • Along the elastic range, elasticity values are greater than one.

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  • Along the inelastic range, elasticity values are less than one.


Elasticity and total revenue
Elasticity and Total Revenue demand is

  • When demand is inelastic, price and total revenues are directly related. Price increases generate higher revenues.

  • When demand is elastic, price and total revenues are indirectly related. Price increases generate lower revenues.


The determinants of demand elasticity
The Determinants of demand is Demand Elasticity

  • Availability of substitutes -- demand is more elastic when there are more substitutes for the product.

  • Importance of the item in the budget -- demand is more elastic when the item is a more significant portion of the consumer’s budget.

  • Time dimension -- demand becomes more elastic over time.


Other important elasticities
Other Important Elasticities demand is

  • Income elasticity of demand – measures the responsiveness of demand to changes in income.


Other important elasticities1
Other Important Elasticities demand is

  • Cross-price elasticity of demand: A measure of the response of the quantity of one good demanded to a change in the price of another good.


Other important elasticities2
Other Important Elasticities demand is

  • Elasticity of supply: A measure of the response of quantity of a good supplied to a change in price of that good. Likely to be positive in output markets.


Other important elasticities3
Other Important Elasticities demand is

  • Elasticity of labor supply: A measure of the response of labor supplied to a change in the price of labor.


Review terms and concepts
Review Terms and Concepts demand is

black market

consumer surplus

cross-price elasticity of demand

deadweight loss

elastic demand

elasticity

elasticity of labor supply

elasticity of supply

favored customers

income elasticity of demand

inelastic demand

midpoint formula

minimum wage

perfectly elastic demand

perfectly inelastic demand

price ceiling

price elasticity of demand

price floor

price rationing

producer surplus

queuing

ration coupons

unitary elasticity


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