USTAT A Real-time Intrusion Detection System for UNIX By: Koral Ilgun

USTAT A Real-time Intrusion Detection System for UNIX By: Koral Ilgun

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Apr-12. Overview:. Introduction to USTAT -- State Transition Analysis Tool for UnixKey issuesSystem componentsImplementation issuesEvaluation of USTAT. Apr-12. Introduction to USTAT. Misuse detectorA penetration is (viewed as) a sequence of signature actions and a corresponding sequence of s
USTAT A Real-time Intrusion Detection System for UNIX By: K...

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1. Apr-12 USTAT A Real-time Intrusion Detection System for UNIX By: Koral Ilgun

2. Apr-12 Overview: Introduction to USTAT -- State Transition Analysis Tool for Unix Key issues System components Implementation issues Evaluation of USTAT

3. Apr-12 Introduction to USTAT

4. Apr-12 Comparison between USTAT and other intrusion detection systems Statistical anomaly detection threshold detection profile-based Rule-based misuse detection it is an expert system Most current intrusion detection tools employ both the anomaly detection and (rule-based) misuse detection components

5. Apr-12 State Transition Analysis View a penetration as a (known) sequence of actions S1, S2, ?,Sn that lead from an initial (limited authorized) access state, S1 to a final compromised state, Sn

6. Apr-12 State Transition Analysis (cont) State really represents some attribute of the system ? not the whole system state State is generic, e.g. ?user is now root? Penetration sequence represented by finite state machine node is a state arc is an action (or transition)

7. Apr-12 Examples: % ln target -x % -x

8. Apr-12 Examples (cont): 1. Attacker creates hard link starting with dash to root?s setuid shell script that contains the #!/bin/sh mechanism 2. Attacker executes ?-x? Insight: Creating hard link ==> new directory entry is created with target?s original privileges and ownership information Target can be accessed via any link to it Executing shell script containing #!/bin/sh invokes a sub-shell Sub-shell becomes interactive (because of the ?-?) Attacker is thus executing a setuid file owned by root, so shell has effective ID of root

9. Apr-12 Examples (cont): Two actions/transitions: make hardlink execute ?-x? Three states: Initial state: euid = user (not root) Intermediate state: hardlink established Final compromise state: not euid = user

10. Apr-12 Features of USTAT Preempts attacks: USTAT monitors state transitions Note that they can span multiple sessions It foresees impending compromise -- at least one transition away Recognizes cooperative attacks Note that USTAT is not tied to users or processes It reflects state of the system So, it can detect state resulting from actions by multiple users

11. Apr-12 USTAT input Audit records of the form, <subject, action, object> Subject is <real userID, effective userID, groupID> Action is <action, time, processID> Object is <object name, permissions, owner, group owner, inode #, device #, file systemID, target> All information can be obtained directly from Unix audit records

12. Apr-12 USTAT input (cont) Unix audits 239 event types Only 28 are useful to USTAT They are mapped down to 10 USTAT action types Filters out all failed command events early, i.e. all the events with a return value of -1

13. Apr-12 USTAT simplifications (cont) All (audited) actions mapped to a small set: read write create execute exit delete modify-owner rename modify-permission hardlink Files are categorized: E.g. all files that should not be accessed via regular utilities (because they hold sensitive data) are mapped to ?Fileset1? 5 ?filesets?

14. Apr-12 USTAT monitoring Monitors for all known penetrations simultaneously Finite state machine for each known penetration Maintains state tables Row represents instance of not yet completed penetration Column represents states in penetration scenario Cell holds detailed info, e.g. userID, actual file names, etc

15. Apr-12 USTAT INITIAL state table One row for each known penetration, I.e. each possible penetration is in its initial state Initial action/transition for each is anticipated Inference Engine accepts audit input For each row, it asks: does this audit event match the ?next transition? anticipated for this row such that the next state is satisfied If so, duplicate the row and mark ?details? for the now satisfied state

16. Apr-12 Decision Engine

17. Apr-12 Strength and weakness of USTAT Strength: Flexibility Real-time -- preempts attack before system is damaged Detects cooperative attacks Weakness - Cannot cope with the following attacks: Manipulation of components outside the system?s execution domain, e.g., wiretapping Denial of service attacks Failures

18. Apr-12 Evaluation of USTAT Massive amount of data that was collected by the audit daemon limited extensive testing Limiting factor is the transfer rate of the disk that is extensively used by USTAT and the audit daemon USTAT functionality costs 13% of machine Papers do not indicate number of penetrations that can be described as state transition diagram

19. Apr-12 NSTAT ? USTAT for Distributed Systems Similar ?state-based? approach Input: audit data from multiple hosts Objective: detect coordinate attack Central server processes input Time ? how to deal with skewed clocks? Vulnerability of NSTAT server

20. Apr-12 Compare! Tripwire -- Integrity of file data GrIDs -- graph nodes (or accumulated groups of nodes) with arcs depicting message traffic USTAT -- monitor for known penetrations, tracking state changes that progress toward compromise

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