Organic chemistry
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Organic Chemistry. Organic Compounds. Covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides Na 2 CO 3 , CO, CO 2 are inorganic Label the following compounds as organic or inorganic… H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 CaCO 3 C 5 H 10. Hydrocarbons.

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Organic Chemistry

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Organic chemistry

Organic Chemistry


Organic compounds

Organic Compounds

  • Covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides

    • Na2CO3, CO, CO2 are inorganic

      Label the following compounds as organic or inorganic…

      H2O

      C6H12O6

      CO2

      CaCO3

      C5H10


Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons

  • Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen

    • Simplest type of organic compounds


Properties of hydrocarbons

Properties of hydrocarbons

  • Carbon always forms 4 covalent bonds

    • Electrons are shared

  • Hydrocarbons are nonpolar molecules

    • Symmetrically shaped

  • Insoluble in water

    • Like dissolves like

  • Non-electrolytes

  • Low melting points and boiling points

    • Due to weak Van der Waal’s forces

  • Slow reaction rates


As the size of the hydrocarbon increases

As the size of the hydrocarbon increases…

  • Strength of Van der Waal’s forces increases

  • Melting and Boiling Points increases

  • Which has the highest melting point?


Homologous series of hydrocarbons

Homologous Series of Hydrocarbons

  • Alkanes

    -Saturated hydrocarbons (contain only single bonds)

    -General formula CnH2n+2

    -Names all end in –ane


Homologous series of hydrocarbons1

Homologous Series of Hydrocarbons

2. Alkenes

-unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain 1 double bond

-general formula CnH2n

- names all end in –ene

-dienecontains 2 double bonds


Homologous series of hydrocarbons2

Homologous Series of hydrocarbons

3. Alkynes

-unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain 1 triple bond

-general formula CnH2n-2

-names all end in -yne

Look at Table Q


Homologous series of hydrocarbons3

Homologous series of hydrocarbons

4. Benzene

-cyclic (aromatic) family of hydrocarbons

- general formula CnH2n-6


Aliphatic vs aromatic

Aliphatic vs. aromatic

  • Aliphatic hydrocarbons: hydrocarbons which do not contain a benzene ring

  • Aromatic hydrocarbons: hydrocarbons which do contain a benzene ring

  • Label the following as aliphatic or aromatic…


Iupac nomenclature of hydrocarbons

IUPac nomenclature of hydrocarbons

  • Identify the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms and determine its name (Table P)

  • Add ending according to type of bonds (Table Q)

  • Number the carbon atoms in the chain beginning at the end closest to a branch

  • Name the hydrocarbon groups attached to the longest chain by adding –yl to the stem name. Indicate the point of attachment by the number of the carbon atoms to which the group is attached

Pentane

Parent Chain

1 2 3 4 5

Akyl Groups


Name the following hydrocarbons

Name the following hydrocarbons

Number carbons on parent chain so that the alkyl group has the lowest number

If 2 or more of the same alkyl groups are present, use prefixes di, tri, tetra,…

For double and triple bonds, give location of such bond

Arrange alkyl groups in ABC order


Sketch the following hydrocarbons

Sketch the following hydrocarbons

  • Octane

  • Pentyne

  • Ethane

  • Butene

  • 1, 3- butadiene


Cycloalkanes

Cycloalkanes

  • Alkanes in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a ring, or cyclic, structure


Name the following cycloalkanes

Name the following cycloalkanes

CH3


Formulas

Formulas

  • Molecular formulasshow the number of atoms in a single molecule

  • Structural formulasshow how the atoms are grouped in the molecule

  • Displayed formulasshow all the atoms and all the bonds


Isomers

ISOmers

  • Compounds with the same molecular formulas but a different structural formula


Draw 3 isomers of hexane

Draw 3 isomers of Hexane


Types of isomers

Types of isomers

  • Structural Isomers have different molecular skeletons because the carbon chain is different

  • Geometric Isomers are composed of the same atoms bonded in the same order but with a different arrangement of atoms around a double bond


Types of isomers1

Types of isomers

  • Positional Isomers form when another elements, such as oxygen or nitrogen, may occupy 2 or more positions in the molecule

  • Functional Isomers form when another element, such as oxygen or nitrogen, may bond in two or more different ways


Functional groups

Functional groups

  • Is an atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound (Table R)

  • For most of these functional groups…..

    • Name organic compound regularly

    • Drop –e and add appropriate ending


Alcohols

Alcohols

  • Organic compound containing one or more hydroxyl group (-OH)

  • Present in lipstick, lotion, and sometimes in alternative fuel sources

  • Not basic

  • Slightly polar

  • Name ends in -ol


Monohydroxy alcohols

Monohydroxy alcohols

  • 1 –OH group

    • Primary- OH is attached to a carbon bonded to 1 other carbon

    • Secondary- OH is attached to a carbon bonded to 2 other carbons

    • Tertiary- OH is attached to a carbon bonded to 3 other carbons


Dihydroxy trihydroxy alchols

Dihydroxy & Trihydroxyalchols

  • Dihydroxy alcohols

    • 2 –OH groups

    • End in -diol

  • Trihydroxy alcohols

    • 3 –OH groups

    • End in -triol


Halides

Halides

  • Organic compounds in which one or more halogen atoms- chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine

  • Use prefix fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, iodo-


Aldehyde

Aldehyde

  • Organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon atom at the end of a chain

  • Name ends in -al


Ketone

Ketone

  • Organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to carbon atoms within the chain

  • Ends in -one


Carboxylic acid

Carboxylic acid

  • Organic compounds that contain the carboxyl functional group

  • Weak acids

  • End in –oic acid


Ether

Ether

  • Organic compounds in which 2 hydrocarbon groups are bonded to the same atom of oxygen

  • Name as alkyl groups in ABC order followed by ether

    CH3-O-CH2-CH3 CH3CH2-O-CH2CH3

    If groups on both sides are the same, use prefix di-


Ester

Ester

  • Organic compounds that have carboxylic acid groups in which the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl group

  • Name alkyl group closest to oxygen then name other alkyl group with –oateending

    CH3C-O-C7H14CH3

O


Amine

Amine

  • Organic compounds that can be considered a derivation of ammonia (NH3)

  • Weak bases

  • Name ends in –amine

  • Primary amines: nitrogen atom bonded to one alkyl group and two hydrogen atoms

  • Secondary amines: nitrogen atom bonded to two alkyl groups and one hydrogen atom

  • Tertiary amines: nitrogen atom bonded to three alkyl groups and no hydrogen atoms


Amide

Amide

  • Organic compound in which a carbonyl group is linked to a nitrogen atom

  • Weak bases

  • Names end in -amide


Organic reactions

Organic reactions

  • Substitution

  • Addition

  • Esterification

  • Fermentation

  • Combustion

  • Polymerization

  • Saponification


Substitution

Substitution

  • Replacing hydrogen on a saturated hydrocarbon with a halogen

HCl


Addition

Addition

  • Adding hydrogens or halogens to unsaturated hydrocarbons by breaking the double or triple bonds


Esterification

Esterification


Fermentation

Fermentation

  • Making ethanol

Yeast


Combustion

Combustion

  • Burning hydrocarbons


Polymerization

Polymerization

  • Connecting together many repeating units


Saponification

Saponification

  • Hydrolysis of fat by a base


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