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Organic chemistry
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Organic Chemistry. Organic Compounds. Covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides Na 2 CO 3 , CO, CO 2 are inorganic Label the following compounds as organic or inorganic… H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 CaCO 3 C 5 H 10. Hydrocarbons.

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Organic Chemistry

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Organic chemistry

Organic Chemistry

Organic compounds

Organic Compounds

  • Covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides

    • Na2CO3, CO, CO2 are inorganic

      Label the following compounds as organic or inorganic…








  • Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen

    • Simplest type of organic compounds

Properties of hydrocarbons

Properties of hydrocarbons

  • Carbon always forms 4 covalent bonds

    • Electrons are shared

  • Hydrocarbons are nonpolar molecules

    • Symmetrically shaped

  • Insoluble in water

    • Like dissolves like

  • Non-electrolytes

  • Low melting points and boiling points

    • Due to weak Van der Waal’s forces

  • Slow reaction rates

As the size of the hydrocarbon increases

As the size of the hydrocarbon increases…

  • Strength of Van der Waal’s forces increases

  • Melting and Boiling Points increases

  • Which has the highest melting point?

Homologous series of hydrocarbons

Homologous Series of Hydrocarbons

  • Alkanes

    -Saturated hydrocarbons (contain only single bonds)

    -General formula CnH2n+2

    -Names all end in –ane

Homologous series of hydrocarbons1

Homologous Series of Hydrocarbons

2. Alkenes

-unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain 1 double bond

-general formula CnH2n

- names all end in –ene

-dienecontains 2 double bonds

Homologous series of hydrocarbons2

Homologous Series of hydrocarbons

3. Alkynes

-unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain 1 triple bond

-general formula CnH2n-2

-names all end in -yne

Look at Table Q

Homologous series of hydrocarbons3

Homologous series of hydrocarbons

4. Benzene

-cyclic (aromatic) family of hydrocarbons

- general formula CnH2n-6

Aliphatic vs aromatic

Aliphatic vs. aromatic

  • Aliphatic hydrocarbons: hydrocarbons which do not contain a benzene ring

  • Aromatic hydrocarbons: hydrocarbons which do contain a benzene ring

  • Label the following as aliphatic or aromatic…

Iupac nomenclature of hydrocarbons

IUPac nomenclature of hydrocarbons

  • Identify the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms and determine its name (Table P)

  • Add ending according to type of bonds (Table Q)

  • Number the carbon atoms in the chain beginning at the end closest to a branch

  • Name the hydrocarbon groups attached to the longest chain by adding –yl to the stem name. Indicate the point of attachment by the number of the carbon atoms to which the group is attached


Parent Chain

1 2 3 4 5

Akyl Groups

Name the following hydrocarbons

Name the following hydrocarbons

Number carbons on parent chain so that the alkyl group has the lowest number

If 2 or more of the same alkyl groups are present, use prefixes di, tri, tetra,…

For double and triple bonds, give location of such bond

Arrange alkyl groups in ABC order

Sketch the following hydrocarbons

Sketch the following hydrocarbons

  • Octane

  • Pentyne

  • Ethane

  • Butene

  • 1, 3- butadiene



  • Alkanes in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a ring, or cyclic, structure

Name the following cycloalkanes

Name the following cycloalkanes




  • Molecular formulasshow the number of atoms in a single molecule

  • Structural formulasshow how the atoms are grouped in the molecule

  • Displayed formulasshow all the atoms and all the bonds



  • Compounds with the same molecular formulas but a different structural formula

Draw 3 isomers of hexane

Draw 3 isomers of Hexane

Types of isomers

Types of isomers

  • Structural Isomers have different molecular skeletons because the carbon chain is different

  • Geometric Isomers are composed of the same atoms bonded in the same order but with a different arrangement of atoms around a double bond

Types of isomers1

Types of isomers

  • Positional Isomers form when another elements, such as oxygen or nitrogen, may occupy 2 or more positions in the molecule

  • Functional Isomers form when another element, such as oxygen or nitrogen, may bond in two or more different ways

Functional groups

Functional groups

  • Is an atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound (Table R)

  • For most of these functional groups…..

    • Name organic compound regularly

    • Drop –e and add appropriate ending



  • Organic compound containing one or more hydroxyl group (-OH)

  • Present in lipstick, lotion, and sometimes in alternative fuel sources

  • Not basic

  • Slightly polar

  • Name ends in -ol

Monohydroxy alcohols

Monohydroxy alcohols

  • 1 –OH group

    • Primary- OH is attached to a carbon bonded to 1 other carbon

    • Secondary- OH is attached to a carbon bonded to 2 other carbons

    • Tertiary- OH is attached to a carbon bonded to 3 other carbons

Dihydroxy trihydroxy alchols

Dihydroxy & Trihydroxyalchols

  • Dihydroxy alcohols

    • 2 –OH groups

    • End in -diol

  • Trihydroxy alcohols

    • 3 –OH groups

    • End in -triol



  • Organic compounds in which one or more halogen atoms- chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine

  • Use prefix fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, iodo-



  • Organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon atom at the end of a chain

  • Name ends in -al



  • Organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to carbon atoms within the chain

  • Ends in -one

Carboxylic acid

Carboxylic acid

  • Organic compounds that contain the carboxyl functional group

  • Weak acids

  • End in –oic acid



  • Organic compounds in which 2 hydrocarbon groups are bonded to the same atom of oxygen

  • Name as alkyl groups in ABC order followed by ether

    CH3-O-CH2-CH3 CH3CH2-O-CH2CH3

    If groups on both sides are the same, use prefix di-



  • Organic compounds that have carboxylic acid groups in which the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl group

  • Name alkyl group closest to oxygen then name other alkyl group with –oateending





  • Organic compounds that can be considered a derivation of ammonia (NH3)

  • Weak bases

  • Name ends in –amine

  • Primary amines: nitrogen atom bonded to one alkyl group and two hydrogen atoms

  • Secondary amines: nitrogen atom bonded to two alkyl groups and one hydrogen atom

  • Tertiary amines: nitrogen atom bonded to three alkyl groups and no hydrogen atoms



  • Organic compound in which a carbonyl group is linked to a nitrogen atom

  • Weak bases

  • Names end in -amide

Organic reactions

Organic reactions

  • Substitution

  • Addition

  • Esterification

  • Fermentation

  • Combustion

  • Polymerization

  • Saponification



  • Replacing hydrogen on a saturated hydrocarbon with a halogen




  • Adding hydrogens or halogens to unsaturated hydrocarbons by breaking the double or triple bonds





  • Making ethanol




  • Burning hydrocarbons



  • Connecting together many repeating units



  • Hydrolysis of fat by a base

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