The Origins and Advancement of Early Human Societies. WH I.2. Introductions.
Humans, or homo sapiens, emerged in East Africa between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago. Humans migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and then to the Americas roughly 12,000 years ago by crossing the Bering Strait.
The early ages of humankind are based on the kinds of tools used; first stone, then copper and bronze, and then iron.
1. The first age of humankind is called the Paleolithic age. This means “Old Stone Age”.
Why do you think it was called that?
2. The Paleolithic Age started with the use of simple tools and ended when humans first used farming techniques.
1. The first human societies were know as hunter-gatherers. Because they lived by hunting and gathering food that they found in the wild.
2. In other words, the were nomadic, traveling constantly as a means of survival. Otherwise, they would quickly use up their sources of food and clothing.
3. Hunter-Gatherers traveled in groups of families called clans, searching for plants, seeds, fruits, and nuts, and for animals to kill and eat.
4. These early humans had no written language, but used oral language to organize their hunts. This proved essential to big-game hunts that were dangerous and complicated.
5. Hunter-Gatherers also created base camps, using natural shelters such as caves. The invention of fire ensured that no large animals, like bears, tried to share the caves with them.
your own cave drawings!
1. You must include time appropriate drawings: i.e.. use fire, bows and arrows, big game animals, domesticated dogs, stone tools, images of hunting and gathering in your cave drawings.
2. This will count as a grade, don’t worry about artistic ability, just do your best!
1. The development of farming created a new age known as the Neolithic Age.
1. People began settling in stable communities built in good locations for planting and tending to crops year after year.
2. This production agriculture provided large amounts of food and resources.
4. Remember: hunter-gather societies did not simply disappear during the Neolithic Age, since it was still a suitable way of life in some environments, even today. (ex. Bushman of southern Africa)
1. Polishing of tools instead of chipping them
2. Domestication of goats, sheep, pig and later cattle
3. Weaving of cloth replaced animal skins as clothing
4. Development of seed culture
5. A division of labor
6. These advances allowed for population increases, economic prosperity, and a distinctive cultural and spiritual life.
3. New archeological findings continue to raise questions about the true origins of humankind. Studies suggest that China may have been a place of human origin, not just Africa.