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Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics. Instructors: Dr. Steven M. Carr  Molecular Genetics Dr. David J. Innes  Mendelian Genetics. Course Web Pages. Dr.Innes: www.mun.ca/biology/dinnes/B2250/B2250.html Dr. Carr: www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Bio2250.html

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Biology 2250 Principles of Genetics

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Biology 2250 principles of genetics
Biology 2250Principles of Genetics

Instructors:

Dr. Steven M. CarrMolecular Genetics

Dr. David J. InnesMendelian Genetics


Course web pages
Course Web Pages

Dr.Innes:www.mun.ca/biology/dinnes/B2250/B2250.html

Dr. Carr:www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Bio2250.html

Text Web Page:http://www.whfreeman.com/mga/

Virtual Fly:http://www.biologylabsonline.com/


Tentative lecture dates and topics
Tentative Lecture Dates and Topics

Carr: Sept. 8 – Oct. 4Structure and function of DNA and genes

Innes: Oct. 13 – Nov. 15 Mendelian Genetics

Carr: Nov. 22 – Dec. 1 Molecular Genomics

Tests: I Oct. 6 (Thurs)

II Nov.17 (Thurs)


Weekly online quizzes
Weekly Online Quizzes

Marks

Oct. 14 Example Quiz 2** for logging in

Oct. 21 Quiz 1 2

Oct. 28 Quiz 2 2

Nov. 4 Quiz 3 2

Nov. 10 Quiz 4 2


Webct quizzes
WebCT Quizzes

Log in: http://webct.mun.ca:8900/



Course goals
Course Goals

Understanding of basic genetics

Solve problems

Think and think critically

Contribute to a discussion on

current issues in genetics

(GMO, gene therapy…)


What is genetics
What is Genetics ?

- Genetics is the study of heredity and variation

- Examples of genetic variation (within species)

1. Domesticated species

2. Human genetics

3. Natural Populations

Genetic variation Phenotypic variation

Molecular genetic variation




Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Human Genetic

Variation



Biology 2250 principles of genetics

DNA Sequence

Molecular Genetic Variation

DNA Fingerprint

Protein variation

Which suspect matches blood stain ?


Subareas of genetics
Subareas of Genetics

cytogenetics

molecular genetics

human genetics

population genetics

quantitative genetics

developmental genetics

immunogenetics

etc. etc.


Genetic journals
Genetic Journals

American Journal of Medical Genetics Clinical Genetics

Developmental Genetics Human Molecular Genetics

Genetics European J. of Human Genetics

Genetics Selection Evolution Nature Genetics

Genetika Fungal Genetics and Biology

Genome Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics

Genomics American J. Human Genetics

Heredity Annals of Human Genetics

Hereditas Opthalmic Genetics

Japanese Journal of Human Genetics Human Genetics

Journal of Heredity Current Genetics

Molecular Biology and Evolution Animal Genetics

Molecular Ecology Brazilian J. Genetics

Molecular and General Genetics Biochemical Genetics

Theoretical and Applied Genetics J. of Medical Genetics

Trends in Genetics (http://www.trends.com/tig/default.htm)


History of genetics
History of Genetics

Domestication of animals

Cultivation of plants


Historical notes
Historical Notes

1953 J. D.Watson and F. Crick(*)

DNA Structure

http://www.sil.si.edu/Exhibitions/Science-and-the-Artists-Book/bioc.htm


Advances in genetics
Advances in Genetics

Human Genome Sequence

http://www.hgsc.bcm.tmc.edu/

Drosophila Genome sequence

http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/

Other organsims:

http://daphnia.cgb.indiana.edu/

http://www.jgi.doe.gov/


Genetic information
Genetic Information

Online Mendelian Inhertitance in Man (OMIM)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=OMIM

Online Mendelian Inhertiance in Animals (OMIA)

http://omia.angis.org.au/



Ethical issues in genetics1
Ethical Issues in Genetics

Genetically modified organisms (GMO)

Gene therapy (Parkinson’s) http://hdlighthouse.org/research/genetherapy/updates/0053parkinson.phtml

Designer genes

Data banks of DNA finger prints (criminals?)

Cloning (Stem cell research)


Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Cloning

1999 - 2002

1997

1998

Sheep

Mice

Pig

Goat

Cow

Dolly

“An udder way of making lambs”

“Cc” copy cat

nucleus

foster

egg



Basic concepts of genetics chapter 1
Basic Concepts of Genetics(Chapter 1)

Nucleus contains genetic material

DNA genetic material

 4 bases (nucleotides G, C, A, T)

Gene functional unit of heredity

 sequence of 4 nucleotides

Chromosome linear DNA molecule


Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Pairs of Chromosomes (maternal, paternal)

Two sets of chromosomes: diploid

One set of chromosomes: haploid



Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Gene Expression

2. Translation of mRNA: triplet codon

Amino acid

1. Transcription of mRNA from DNA


Understanding genetics
Understanding Genetics

Relationship between:

GENOTYPE ENVIRONMENT PHENOTYPE

set of genes morphology

inherited physiology

behaviour



Mendelian genetics
Mendelian Genetics

Topics: - Transmission of DNA during cell division

Mitosis and Meiosis (Ch. 4)

- Segregation (Ch. 5)

- Sex linkage (Ch. 5)

- Inheritance and probability (Ch.5)

- Mendelian genetics in humans

(pedigrees) (Ch.5)

- Independent Assortment (Ch. 6)

- Linkage (Ch. 6)

- Gene mapping (Ch. 6)


Mendelian genetics1
Mendelian Genetics

Topics (cont.):

- Tetrad Analysis (mapping in fungi)

- Extensions to Mendelian Genetics

- Gene mutation

- Chromosome mutation

- (Quantitative and population genetics)


Basic concepts of genetics
Basic Concepts of Genetics

Cell/nuclear division

Mitosis (somatic tissue):

identical cells

Meiosis (germ tissue):

gametes (variation)


Mendelian genetics chromosomes
Mendelian Genetics:Chromosomes

Readings:

Transmission of DNA and cell division

- Mitosis and meiosis (Ch. 4)

pp. 92, 100 – 113


Chromosome theory of inheritance ch 4
Chromosome Theory of Inheritance (Ch. 4)

- genes organized into chromosomes

correlation: Genetics & Cytology

- theory can explain the behaviour of genes (segregation and independent assortment)


Chromosome and dna replication
Chromosome and DNA Replication

DNA replication results in

chromosome replication

2. Nuclear and cell division


Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Mitosis

Cell cycle:

S = synthesis

G = “gaps”

n = # of chr. in a set

n

Haploid (n)

2n

Diploid (2n)


Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Meiosis

n

2n


Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Animal

Polar bodies

n

n

egg


Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Plant

n

gp = gametophyte



Cytological observations
Cytological Observations

1. Constancy of the number of chromosomes

Morphologically similar pairs (diploid)

3. Gametes - contain one set (haploid)

2n

n

Homologous chromosomes


Two processes of nuclear division
Two processes of nuclear division

1. Mitosis (somatic tissue)

2. Meiosis (germ tissue)


Mitosis
Mitosis

1. one parent cell--------> 2 identical

daughter cells

2. same in all organisms

3. simple:

(a) each chromosome

doubles (identical)

(b) identical halves separate


Four stages of mitosis
Four Stages of Mitosis

1.Prophase

2. Metaphase

3. Anaphase

4. Telophase


1 prophase

Chromosome

replication

1. Prophase

- chromosomes condense

- 2 chromatids (sister chromatids)

- centromere

- nuclear membrane breaks down


2 metaphase
2. Metaphase

Nuclear spindle

- chromosomes attach to spindle fibers

- chromosomes migrate to plane between poles

- maximum contraction: karyotype

- number

- centromere position

- length


3 anaphase
3. Anaphase

- centromeres divide

- sister chromatids separate


4 telophase
4. Telophase

- nuclear membrane reforms

- spindle disperses

- cytoplasm divides (cytokinesis)


Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Mitosis:

Mitosis: Summary

2n = 2

replication

mitosis


Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Mitosis: Summary

2n = 4

replication

mitosis


Mitosis animation
Mitosis Animation

http://www.whfreeman.com/mga/


Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Mitosis: Lily

Fig. 4-21


Meiosis overview
Meiosis(overview)

diploid (2n) ---------------> haploid (n) gametes

Chromosome replication once --------> 2 nuclear

divisions (meiosis I, II)

one nucleus -------------------> 4 nuclei


Meiosis i meiosis ii reductional equational
Meiosis I Meiosis II (reductional) (equational)

Prophase I Prophase II

Metaphase I Metaphase II

Anaphase I Anaphase II

Telophase I Telophase II


Meiosis i reductional division
Meiosis I (reductional division)

Pairing of homologous chromosomes

2n = ?

Continued 



Meiosis animation
Meiosis Animation

http://www.whfreeman.com/mga/


Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Meiosis: Lily pollen

Fig. 4-22

Prophase I

Metaphase I

Anaphase I

Telophase I

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II


Mitosis meiosis

Comparison (Fig. 4-24)

Mitosis Meiosis

somatic cells cells of sexual cycle

one doubling one doubling

1 division  2 cells 2 divisions  4 cells

same amount of DNA ½ amount of DNA


Mitosis meiosis1

Comparison (continued)

Mitosis Meiosis

# chrs doesn’t change #chrs. halved

No pairing of chr. Synapsis of homologs

Centromeres divide at Not at anaphase I,

anaphase but at anaphase II

Conservative Variation



Genetic terminology
Genetic Terminology

Genes: hereditary elements

Alleles: forms of a gene: A , a

b, b+

Genotypes Gene pairs

Heterozygote: Aa bb+

Homozygotes: AA aa bb b+ b+


Genes on chromosomes
Genes on Chromosomes

Expect behaviour of genes to correlate with the behaviour of chromosomes:

genes chromosomes

Diploid (2n) AA, Aa, aa pairs

Haploid (n) A one set

a


Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Genes on Chromosomes

Fig. 4-17

b+ b+ homozygote


Biology 2250 principles of genetics

Genes on Chromosomes

b b+ heterozygote


Biology 2250 principles of genetics

b bhomozygote


Genetic links
Genetic Links

http://www.biology-online.org/tutorials/2_genetics_evolution.htm

http://www.tokyo-med.ac.jp/genet/mfi-e.htm

http://www.biology.arizona.edu/mendelian_genetics/mendelian_genetics.html

http://science.nhmccd.edu/biol/genetics.html


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