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Media & Collective Identity . History of Youth Culture & Stereotypes . Key Question. How these representations can be seen as different to historical representations of the same groups Important to be able to compare with past examples Knowledge of difference . Ask yourself….

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Media & Collective Identity

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Media & Collective Identity

History of Youth Culture & Stereotypes


Key Question

  • How these representations can be seen as different to historical representations of the same groups

  • Important to be able to compare with past examples

  • Knowledge of difference


Ask yourself….

  • When do you think the teenager emerged as an important social group?

  • What age does youth begin and end?

  • Why do you think youths were seen as important?

  • What elements of the stereotype still remain today?

  • Do you think the stereotype has changed?


When did it all start?

  • ‘In one pitched battle that obtained considerable publicity, a gang of about twenty youths were described, said to be known as the ‘Chelsea Boys’, who ‘armed with sticks and stones were fighting a contingent of similar young ruffians from Battersea’ at Cheyne Walk by the River Thames’ (The Daily Graphic, 18 August 1898)’

    • Taken from ‘Youth in Crisis? Gangs, Territoriality and Violence’ Edited by Barry Goldson (pg 26-27)


Birmingham – The Peaky Blinders

http://www.spaghettigazetti.com/2010/12/gangs-of-victorian-birmingham-revealed.html


Dedicated followers of fashion and vilification

  • One thing that quickly became apparent is that the ‘hooligans’ had adopted a uniform dress-style. The main features were bell-bottom narrow-go-wide trousers cut tight at the knee and flared at the bottom…..Gang members also had identical hair styles

  • Newspaper reports frequently depicted the ‘London’ hooligans cluttering up the streets in noisy gatherings, swearing at passers-by, spitting on them, and sometimes assaulting and robbing them

    • Taken from ‘Youth in Crisis? Gangs, Territoriality and Violence’ Edited by Barry Goldson (pg 26-27)


When does youth begin?

  • It is hard to define with youth begins and ends

  • We can get married at 16 with parental consent

  • We can drive a car at 17

  • We can vote and drink alcohol at 18

  • Many people are dependent on parents well into their twenties


Living with Parents


Youth Culture


Youth Culture

  • In other cultures, the transition from childhood to adulthood is marked with no period of ‘youth’

  • Individuals may undergo a ‘rite of passage’

    • http://www.cracked.com/article_16313_the-5-most-terrifying-rites-manhood-from-around-world.html

  • Do you feel there are certain moments in life which signal the transition from childhood to adulthood?


  • Youth as Social Construct

    • Experience and definition of youth is socially constructed

    • Society constructs the way we understand and experience youth and it differs from culture to culture

    • In the past, youth would be seen as something very different

    • Children in the mid 1800s and early 1900s (Victorian era) would begin work at the age of 5

    • Today there is a high value on childhood and it is protected by law


    Emergence of the teenager

    • Prior to WWII young people had little freedom or influence

    • There are a number of factors that affected the changing nature of youth culture. These are:

      • Post-War Baby Boom

      • Affluence & Women in Work

      • Rise of Consumer Culture

      • Contraceptive Pill

      • Extension of education

  • These changes meant that young people had a differentiated experience

  • 1960s Britain is often seen as the most important moment in the emergence of UK youth culture


  • Punk Rockers


    Goths


    Hipsters

    http://visual.ly/evolution-hipster


    Subcultures

    • What similarities can we identify between punks, gothsand hipsters?

    • Why are music and fashion so important in the creation of a subculture?

    • Why do you think it is important to you to identify with a group?

    • http://www.ymresourcer.com/model/subcult1.htm


    Subcultures & differences in western youth culture

    • If teenagers are all offered he same cultural experience, why do some conform and others rebel?

    • Subcultures allows us to see the different aspects of youth

    • Increased subcultures can be seen as a result of:

      • Our population size

      • Rate of change in society

      • Globalisation

      • Marginalisation of youth

      • Number of young people


    'It seems that we can only be interesting if we are smoking, snorting or stabbing'

    http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2009/apr/15/stereotypes-young-people


    Stereotypes

    • What are some of the stereotypes associated with youth?

    • Look at the following video on Mods & Rockers

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r61ks18Bd7I

  • Do you think there are any similarities with contemporary youths?

  • Do you think the representation of youth today can be seen as a form of moral panic?


  • David Buckingham ‘Identity is fluid and changeable’

    • Generation X (1960-1980)

      • Labeled as the MTV generation

      • Saw introduction of cable, music television, home computers, internet

      • World view is based on ‘change’

  • Generation Y (1980-2000)

    • Increased narcissism

    • Sense of entitlement

    • Trophy Kids

    • Entertainment industry was fragmented

  • Generation Z (2000-Present)

    • Highly “connected”

    • Digital Natives


  • UK Tribes (Subcultures Today)


    Summary

    • Can we see any similarities between the representation of youth (or hooligans) in the Victorian era and the youth of today?

    • How is the period of youth defined?

    • What are the reasons for the proliferation of subcultures?

    • What is the impact of stereotyping?

    • What power do audiences have to resist stereotypes?

    • Extension: David Buckingham – ‘identity is fluid and changeable’ (2008)

    • http://www.slideshare.net/spingwoodmedia/david-buckingham


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