Bacteria
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Bacteria . Text (460-468) LAB (instructions in binder) cheese VIDEO Bacteria Part I (worksheet in binder) VIDEO Bacteria Part II (worksheet in binder) Guided Notes in binder. Vocabulary. endospore, antibiotic, anaerobic, toxin, capsule, pili. The study of bacteria Bacteriology.

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Bacteria

Bacteria

Text (460-468)

LAB (instructions in binder) cheese

VIDEO Bacteria Part I (worksheet in binder)

VIDEO Bacteria Part II (worksheet in binder)

Guided Notes in binder


Vocabulary

Vocabulary

  • endospore,

  • antibiotic,

  • anaerobic,

  • toxin,

  • capsule,

  • pili


The study of bacteria bacteriology

The study of bacteriaBacteriology

  • KINGDOM formerly Monera

  • Now 2 Domains Archeabacteria, Eubacteria (more about these later in the year)

  • Only Prokaryotic cells

  • Only Prokaryotic Domains


Characteristics of

Prokaryotic Cells

Originated 3.5 bybp

No nucleus

Loop of DNA

Few organelles

No compartments

Very small 1-2µm

(microns 1/1000 of a millimeter)

1/1,000,000 of a meter

Eukaryotic Cells

Evolved 1.5 bybp

Nucleus- holds the DNA

Many organelles

Mitochondria

Chloroplast

Golgi body

Endoplasmic reticulum

cytoskeleton

Characteristics of


Anatomy draw and label cell with the following structures

ANATOMYDraw and label cell with the following structures:

pili

flagella

cell membrane

cell wall

capsule

plasmid,

cytoplasm


Ii common bacterial shapes

II Common Bacterial SHAPES


Coccus sphere shaped

Coccus -sphere shaped

Strepto- linear

Staphylo- sheet


Bacillus rod shaped

Bacillus- rod shaped

BACILLUS ANTRACIS

PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA


Spirillum spiral shaped

Spirillum- spiral shaped

Spirillum sp.


Do not write this

Do not write this!

  • There are many ways to classify bacteria

  • The choice depends on what you are interested in studying

    • Anatomy?

    • Physiology?

    • Harm to humans?

    • Food source?


Archaebacteria

Archaebacteria-

  • Methanogens –methane producing, found in the gut of animals and swamps

  • Extremehalophiles – salt loving, Dead Sea

  • Thermoacidophiles – hot springs and geysers with acidic water


Eubacteria

Eubacteria

  • Recycle nutrients into the soil(break down large molecules “proteins, lipids, carbohydrates”, into simple molecules that can be absorbed by plants)

  • Cyanobacteria also called blue green algae, photosynthetic bacteria


Iii classification by how they obtain energy

III. CLASSIFICATION by how they obtain energy

  • Photosynthetic- energy from sunlight

    • Green sulfur bacteria, cyanobacteria, purple sulfur bacteria

  • Chemoautotrophic- energy from electrons in inorganic molecules

    • Nitrobacter, nitrosomonas

  • Heterotrophic- organic materials from other organisms

    • Streptomyces, rhizobium

WRITE THIS ON THE BACK OF YOUR BACTERIA DRAWING


Iv metabolism

IV METABOLISM

  • Obligate anaerobes- must live where there is no oxygen

  • Obligate aerobes- must live where there is oxygen

  • Facultative aerobe or facultative anaerobes- can live in either but prefers one.


V diseases

V DISEASES

  • Clostridium tetani tetanus, produces a toxin ( caused by deep puncture)


Bacteria

Clostridium tetani


Bacteria

  • C. botulinum botulism , food poisoning (caused by poor canning) Toxin is odorless and tasteless.


Bacteria

Clostridium botulinum


Bacteria

  • Borrelia burgdorferi- Lyme disease (carried by deer ticks) Named for Lyme County Conn.?


Bacteria

Borrelia burgdorferi

Lyme Disease


Bacteria

  • Salmonella sp. Food poisoning (associated with eggs and poultry)

  • Many different species


Bacteria

Salmonella sp.


Bacteria

  • Yersinia pestis- bubonic plague Black Death changed the course of history

  • Thought to be carried by rats but actually carried by fleas


Bacteria

Yersinia pestis

Bubonic Plague (Black

Death)


Bacteria

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosum- tuberculosis (infects the lungs) Now there are some drug resistant strains.


Bacteria

Mycobacterium

tuberculosum


Bacteria

USES

  • Lactobacillus sp. Yogurt,sauerkraut pickles, vinegar

  • Actinomycetes-antibiotics streptomycin

    • Chemicals that kill other prokaryotic cells


Bacteria

  • E. coli- in digestive tracts of humans, used in the manufacture of linen from flax (plant)

    • Excess, wrong location, or wrong species can be dangerous to humans.


Bacteria

  • Rhizobium sp. Associated with the roots of legumes (pod plants) Helps "fix" atmospheric nitrogen into the plants to help make proteins. Enriches soil, plants are high in protein.

  • Tanning leather, silage (fermented hay increases protein content) “silo”


Vii environmental factors that influence growth

Temperature up or down

light

Oxygen present

amount of wastes

Food availability

presence of chemicals (salt)

Amount of water

VII ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE GROWTH


Competition secrete toxins

COMPETITION (secrete toxins)

  • Endotoxins- part of the cell wall is poisonous

  • Exotoxin- chemicals poison is released


Viii levels of cleaning

VIII LEVELS OF CLEANING

  • RefrigerationSLOWS GROWTH

  • AntisepticPREVENTS GROWTH

  • DisinfectantDEATH OF PATHOGENS IN A MEDIUM

  • SterileREMOVES ALL FORMS OF LIFE

  • PasteurizationDESTRUCTION BY HEAT OF DISEASE CAUSING ORGANISMS FROM BEVERAGES


Ix methods of cleaning

IX METHODS OF CLEANING

  • MECHANICAL

  • CHEMICAL

  • RADIATION

  • TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE

  • (AUTOCLAVE)

  • ENDOSPORE – protoplasm of bacteria cell becomes encased in a spore coat. Protects from environment -250 C to over 100 C


X food spoilage and preservation

X FOOD SPOILAGE AND PRESERVATION

  • CANNING

  • SALT CURING

  • DEHYDRATION

  • QUICK FREEZING

  • RADIATION

  • VACCUM PACKAGING

  • CHEMICAL PRESERVATION


Test topics for tuesday

Test Topics FOR Tuesday

  • Video Bacteria I and II worksheets

  • Lab results (cheese, bacteria cultures)

  • Notes on Anatomy, classification, diseases, uses, preservation of food and cleaning

  • Text (460-468) Vocabulary 16-19

  • Bacteria word search


Notebook contents due tuesday next test day

C.S.

A.S.

G.S.

Vocabulary 1-19

Notes

Labs

Geo Time Scale

Microscopy

Biome Research

Bioethics

Cheese Making

Bacteria Cultures

Daily Work

Text Ques pg. 9 + 22

Analyzing sci words

Branches of Biology

Chap 12.1

Chap 12.2

IV and DV worksheet

Biome Measuring

Bacteria Video Part I

Bacteria Video Part II

Bacteria Word Search

Systems

NOTEBOOK CONTENTSDue Tuesday (next test day)


Bacteria jeopardy questions

Bacteria Jeopardy Questions

Easy

  • Name the shapes of bacteria:

  • Name 3 diseases that bacteria can cause:

  • Name 3 non-dairy products of bacteria:

  • What is the highest form of cleanliness?

  • What are antibiotics used for?

  • Where would you find a thermophilic bacteria?

  • Name the salt loving bacteria.

  • Bacteria that causes lock jaw?

  • What does flagella do?

  • What does refrigeration do to bacteria growth?

  • What is the purpose of an endospore?

  • What does obligate aerobe mean?


Bacteria jeopardy questions1

Bacteria Jeopardy Questions

Easy - Answers

  • Bacillus, coccus, spirillum

  • Ecoli poisioning, tetanus, botulism, lyme disease, salmonella, bubonic plague, tuberculosis, staph infection, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, cholera,

  • Linen, sourdough bread, wine, sewage treatment, antibiotics, helping plants grow (nitrogen fixing), Botox

  • sterilization

  • to inhibit bacteria from reproducing

  • Yellowstone (hot and acidic environment)

  • Halophile

  • Clostridium tetani

  • Aid with movement of bacteria

  • Slows growth

  • Protects bacteria from harsh environment

  • Must live in presence of oxygen


Bacteria

Medium

  • Name the ability to live with or without oxygen.

  • What type of plants have bacteria in their roots? What do they do?

  • Name 3 factors that influence bacterial growth:

  • What was the “black death”? What spread it?

  • Leading all time pathogen killer?

  • Describe 2 main features of the first bacteria.

  • What does an autoclave do?

  • Name 3 ways we preserve food.

  • What are bacterial pilli used for?

  • Do bacteria have DNA? If yes, in what form?


Bacteria

Medium - Answers

  • Facultative anaerobe

  • Legumes…the bacteria help fix nitrogen into the plants to help make proteins for the plant

  • Temperature, oxygen presence, food availability, water, light, amount of wastes, chemicals present

  • Bubonic plague…carried by fleas (not rats)

  • tuberculosis

  • No nucleus, few organelles, very small and simple

  • Uses temperature and pressure to kill all forms of life

  • Canning, freezing, refrigeration, salt curing, dehydration, chemical preservation, radiation

  • Sticking to surfaces

  • Yes, in plasmid or nucleoid form


Bacteria

Difficult

  • What is an endospore? How do we destroy them?

  • Draw a bacteria with all its features.

  • Why are some bacteria antibiotic resistant?

  • First antibiotic discovered? By whom?

  • Why do some bacteria produce antibiotics and yeast produce alcohol?

  • E. coli is in your intestines. Why does it help you there and harm you in other areas of the body?

  • Why are some beverages pasteurized? How is it done? Who invented it?


Bacteria

Difficult - Answers

  • Protoplasm of bacterial cell becomes encased in a spore coat…very hard to kill…you have to autoclave to kill

  • Look at Slide # 5 of this presentation

  • Random mutations that occur

  • Penicillin…Alexander Fleming…penicillin comes from a mold or fungus

  • It is their specific waste product

  • There are different strains of E.coli and they all are different. In some strains, they are okay for the body…in some strains…they can harm the body.

  • It destroys microbes by heat…in things like milk, juices, wines, and malt beverages. Louis Pasteur


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