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Comparison of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks Between Residential Turf Grass & Native Soil. Richard V. Pouyat, Ian D. Yesilonis, and Nancy E. Golubiewski. Residential: 40% of urban areas (Nowak et al. 1996) 40 million acres of lawn in conterminous USA (Milesi et al., 2005)

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Comparison of Soil Organic

Carbon Stocks Between

Residential Turf Grass & Native Soil

Richard V. Pouyat, Ian D. Yesilonis, and Nancy E. Golubiewski



AREA (x10

m

)

C Density (kg m

) Soil C (x10

g)

LIFE ZONE

AREA (x10

m

)

C Density (kg m

) Soil C (x10

g)

12

2

2

15

12

2

2

15

Temperate forest

-

warm

7.1

Temperate forest

-

warm

8.6

7.1

61.1

-

Temperate forest

-

cool

3.4

12.7

43.2

Cool temperate steppe

9.0

13.3

119.7

Temperate thorn steppe

3.9

7.6

29.6

Warm desert

14.0

1.4

19.6

Wetlands

2.8

72.3

202.4

-

Boreal forest

-

wet

6.9

19.3

133.2

Cultivated land

21.2

7.9

167.5

14.4

?

?

Residential turf grass

1.3 +

7.7

10.0

Urban land

TOTAL WORLD

1500(±20%)

Adapted from Post et al. (1982) and Schlesinger and Andrews (2000)

*Milesi et al. 2005


SIMILARITY?

Baltimore

Phoenix


  • URBAN LAND USE CHANGE?:

  • Disturbance (initial, post-develop.)-

  • SOC

  • Introduction of impervious surfaces

  • SOC- low, very slow change

  • Introduction of horticultural management (supplements)- SOC

  • Environmental change (biophysical)- SOC


TURFGRASS MAINTENANCE

  • $10.4 billion in USA

  • Range of fertilizer rates:

    • Golf courses, athletic fields—490 kg ha-1 yr-1

    • Residential lawns—50-145 kg ha-1 yr-1

  • 16 million kg pesticides applied yr-1(Aspelin, 1997)

  • Irrigation use?


Boreal

Cool Temperate Steppe

Cool Tropical Forest

Moist Tropical Forest

Warm Temperate Forest

Warm Desert

20

Agricultural Conversion

Urban Conversion

Cd

Urban Range at Equilibrium

Global Range at Equilibrium

1.4

Time

Edaphic Cultivation Urban

Turf grass?

Milesi et al., 2005

Pouyat et al. (2001) & Pouyat et al. (2003)


  • OBJECTIVES:

  • Compare residential turf grass vs. native SOC in Baltimore, MD and Denver, CO areas

    • Climatologically distinct regions

    • Compare residential turf grass vs. native cover types (0.2 and 1 m depth)

    • Field collected data, NRCS Soil database, and data from literature



  • EXPECTED RESULTS: densities in both metropolitan areas

  • SOC densities of native soils will differ more than for residential soils

  • 2. Net differences between pre- and post-urban SOC densities will be positive in arid shortgrass steppe (Denver) and negative in mid-Atlantic hardwood deciduous forest (Baltimore)


1 m DEPTH SOIL CORES densities in both metropolitan areas

NRCS Soil Characterization Database

  • 605 pedons northeastern and north central USA

  • Data required (bulk density, coarse fragments, C fraction, horizon thickness)

  • 0-20 cm, 0-1 m, proportion of C to 1 m depth occurring in surface 20 cm

  • Extrapolated to 1 m only if reached C horizon


BALTIMORE UFORE PLOTS densities in both metropolitan areas

Birdsey (1992)

n=19

n=5

n=7

n=19

NRCS DATA


CUB HILL PLOTS densities in both metropolitan areas

Birdsey (1992)

n=6

n=7

n=8


DENVER METROPOLITAN AREA densities in both metropolitan areas

n=19

n=3

n=2

n=5

n=3

Schimel et al. (1985)

NRCS

Adapted from Galubiewski (2006)


COMPARISON OF RESIDENTIAL AREAS densities in both metropolitan areas

n=26

n=13


COMPARISON OF NATIVE SOILS densities in both metropolitan areas

?

n=7

n=19


NET Change? densities in both metropolitan areas

-4.1 (+2.6)

+1.17

*includes impervious surfaces (3.3 kg m-2)


CONCLUSIONS densities in both metropolitan areas

  • Residential soils differ less than native soils in SOC densities

  • Residential soils in Denver significantly higher than native short grass (Baltimore less clear)

  • Net change Denver (increase SOC), Baltimore (+ or – change?)

  • Turf grass potential to sequester C in soil (BUT, entire budget required)


LIFE ZONE densities in both metropolitan areas

AREA C Density Soil

C

LIFE ZONE

AREA C Density Soil

C

(x10

m2)

(kg m

)

(x10

g)

10

-

2

14

(x10

10

(kg m

-

2

)

(x10

14

g)

Northeast Forest*

20.81

16.2

33.7

Northeast Forest*

16.2

Northeast Cropland*

-

6.0

-

Northeast Cropland*

-

6.0

-

Mid

-

Atlantic Forest*

20.29

11.2

22.7

Mid

-

Atlantic Forest*

20.29

11.2

Mid

-

Atlantic

Cropland*

-

4.2

-

Mid

-

Atlantic

Cropland*

-

4.2

-

Forest*

34.22

7.7

Southeast

26.3

-

-

Southeast

Cropland*

2.6

Urban (residential)

6.35

14.4 (

±

1.2)

9.84

6.35

±

1.2)

9.84

7.7 (±0.2)***

USA Urban (total)

30.06**

USA Urban (total)

30.06

23.15

USA (total)

915.9

6.8 (?)

619.15

USA (total)

915.9

6.8 (?)

***Pouyat et al. (2006)

*

Birdsey

(1992)

*

Birdsey

(1992)

**Nowak et al. (1996)


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