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Western European Social & Cultural Life During the Middle Ages. Presented By: Alan, Diana, Sarah, Jared, Dan, Jeremy, Charles. Status of Western Europe during the Middle Ages. Middle ages: 500-1000 C.E.

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Western European Social & Cultural Life During the Middle Ages

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Western european social cultural life during the middle ages l.jpg

Western EuropeanSocial & Cultural LifeDuring the Middle Ages

Presented By: Alan, Diana, Sarah, Jared, Dan, Jeremy, Charles


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Status of Western Europe during the Middle Ages

  • Middle ages: 500-1000 C.E.

  • Western Europe was filled with violence and disorder during the beginning of the middle ages.

  • Political organization and economic growth brings W. Europe into world stage after Roman Empire collapse. Opens trade as far as China for luxury goods.

  • W. Europe became a center for Christianity. Military and political leaders expand Christendom to pre-dominantly Muslim areas. (Spain, Palestine through Jerusalem)


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Agriculture and Economic Growth

  • Expansion of Land

    • Cause: population pressure

    • Effect: Yielded higher tax rates

      led to increased wealth

  • Improved Agricultural Techniques

  • New Tools & Technologies

    • Use of watermills and plows

    • Invented items: horseshoe, collar


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Agriculture and Economic Growth

  • New crops

    • Meat, dairy, fish, vegetables

  • Population growth

    • Cause: improved human diets

    • 800 CE – 29 Million

    • 1000 – 36 Million

    • 1300 – 79 Million

  • Increased Population = increased trade


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Revival of Towns and Trade

  • Urban opportunities

  • Manufacturing

  • Revival of Urban Society

  • Improvement in Business Techniques


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Social Changes in the Middle Ages

  • The Three Estates

    • “Those who worked, those who prayed, and those who fought.”

    • Western European society was socially and economically unequal. Those who fought and prayed enjoyed rights and honors that were denied to workers.

  • Chivalry

  • Troubadours

  • Independent Cities

  • Guilds

  • Urban Women


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Popular Religion in the Middle Ages

  • Europeans believed strongly in the Roman Catholic Church.

  • Christianity was a set of beliefs and rituals that gave meaning to lives of communities

  • Roman Catholics practiced the observance of the sacraments

    • recognized baptism, matrimony, penance, and the Eucharist

    • believed that a sacrament would protect them from sudden death and advance their worldly interests.


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Popular Religion in the Middle Ages

  • They also practiced devotion to the saints recognized by their church.

    • Believed that saints could cure diseases, relieve toothaches, and guide sailors through storms through a port

    • Virgin Mary was the most popular saint who personified the Christian ideal of womanhood, love, and sympathy

    • The churches also made relics of clothes, locks of hair, teeth, and bones of famous saints


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Education during the Middle Ages

  • Early Middle Ages

  • - Western European societies were poor and unstable

  • - Bible

  • High Middle Ages

    • wealth increased

    • educated people were needed

  • 11th century

    • Cathedrals set up schools

    • Boys only


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Education during the Middle Ages

  • 12 century

    • strict curricula were founded

    • Latin grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music

    • Latin was important!

    • no women

    • no desks

    • had to use bones to take notes

  • Mid-12th century

    • cathedral schools were transformed into universities

    • students could obtain degrees in law, medicine, philosophy or theology

  • Universities were founded in Paris, Rome, Oxford, Cambridge


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The Crusades

  • Holy war

    Latin word crux meaning "cross"

  • 1095 - Pope Urban II

  • The First Crusade 1096-1099

    • Gave blessing to recapture Jerusalem or "Holy City"

    • Peter the Hermit

    • 1099 Christians recapture Jerusalem from Muslims

  • The Second Crusade 1147-1149

    • Saladin

    • 1187 Muslims recapture Jerusalem

    • Battle of Hattin

  • The Third Crusade 1189-1192

    • Pope Gregory VIII

    • Orders to regain the Holy City

    • Led by Richard the "Lionheart"


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The Crusades

  • The Fourth Crusade 1201-1204

  • The Fifth Crusade 1218 -1221

  • The Sixth Crusade 1228 -1229

  • The Seventh Crusade 1248 -1254

  • The Eighth Crusade 1270


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