Cervical spondylomyelopathy wobbler
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Cervical Spondylomyelopathy : Wobbler. Cervical spinal cord compression (__________) as a result of caudal vertebral ______________or misarticulation . ____________breed dogs (Great danes and Dobermans) Signs Progressive hind-limb ataxia (wobbly gait)

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Cervical Spondylomyelopathy : Wobbler

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Cervical spondylomyelopathy wobbler

Cervical Spondylomyelopathy: Wobbler

  • Cervical spinal cord compression (__________) as a result of caudal vertebral ______________or misarticulation.

    • ____________breed dogs (Great danes and Dobermans)

  • Signs

    • Progressive hind-limb ataxia (wobbly gait)

    • Pelvic limbs cross each other when walking

    • Abduct widely/tend to collapse

    • May drag toes (wears dorsal surface of nails)

    • Impaired __________________________

    • Signs may also be present in front limb

    • Crouching stance with downward flexed neck

    • Rigid flexion of neck; may have neck pain


Cervical spondylomyelopathy wobbler1

Cervical Spondylomyelopathy: Wobbler

  • Dx

    • Radiographs to show malalignment and narrowing of spinal canal

    • _________________ is essential to locate the region of compression

    • CT and MRI if available


Cervical spondylomyelopathy

Cervical Spondylomyelopathy

MYELOGRAM

C6-C7


Cervical spondylomyelopathy wobbler2

Cervical Spondylomyelopathy: Wobbler

  • Rx—without treatment, prognosis is ________

    • Medical

      • Anti-inflammatory doses of corticosteroids

      • Neck brace

      • Cage confinement

    • Surgical

      • Decompression of spinal cord by ___________________

      • Stabilize vertebral column

        • screws and wire dorsally

        • spinal fusion ventrally


Cervical spondylomyelopathy wobbler3

Cervical Spondylomyelopathy: Wobbler

  • Client info

    • Prognosis is _______________________

    • Most likely a hereditary disease

    • Multiple levels of compression less favorable prognosis than a single area of compression

    • Surgery is risky and costly


Degenerative myelopathy

Degenerative Myelopathy

  • Etiology—unclear

    • May be __________________response to antigen in nerv sys

    • Degeneration of ______________ matter in ascending and descending tracts

    • ~ Multiple sclerosis - humans

  • Signs

    • Mainly in G Shep and Shep mixes (>5 yr)

    • Progressive ataxia and paresis of hind limbs (5-6 months)

    • Loss of proprioception is first sign

    • Dog “falls down” when trying to ____________________

    • Muscle wasting of back muscles along caudal thoracic and lumbosacral areas

    • Symptoms progress until animal is unable to support weight on hind limbs


Degenerative myelopathy1

Degenerative Myelopathy

  • Dx—

    • Neurologic Exam

      • ↓ proprioception

      • ↑ _________________________

      • Lack of pain

      • Normal sphincter tone; normal panniculus

        (pin prick) reflex

      • Radiographs usually normal

  • Rx—none; symptoms will progress to

    paralysis

  • Client info—

    • Degenerative myelopathy is a progressive, ____________ disease

    • Although symptoms are similar at early stages, it is a different disease from hip dysplasia

    • When dog cannot support weight, quality of life should be evaluated


Degenerative myelopathy2

Degenerative Myelopathy


Peripheral nervous system

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM


Deafness

Deafness

1) Damage to auditory pathway

  • chronic otitis

  • rupture of _______________

  • damage to middle ear (ossicles)

    2) Damage to

    auditory nerve


Deafness1

Deafness

3) Hereditary or congenital

  • Bull terriers, Dobes, Rotts, Pointers, blue-eyed white cats, Dalmations, Aust Heelers, Aust shepherds, Eng setters, Catahoula

    4) Related to drug therapy

    _________________________(gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin

  • Topical polymyxin B

  • Chloramphenicol

  • Chlorhexidine w/ centrimide

    5) Normal old age—usually due to atrophy of nerve ganglia or cochlear hair cells (also loud rock music)


Deafness2

Deafness

  • Dx—

    • Inability to rouse sleeping animal with loud

      noise (e,g,. blast from air horn) is diagnostic

  • Rx—No treatment is available in most cases

    • Hearing aids are available for animals,

      but most will not tolerate something in ear canal

  • Client info

    • Hearing loss is ______________________________

    • If hereditary, do not breed

    • Animals can be taught to hand signals rather than words

    • Animals should not be off leash when outside

    • Hearing aids are available for dogs but are usually not tolerated; would only be appropriate for hearing impaired


Laryngeal paralysis

Laryngeal Paralysis

  • 3 types—always be cautious of

    laryngeal paralysis because of the

    chance of _____________________

    • Hereditary—seen in Bouvier des Flandres and Siberian Huskies

      • Seen at 4-6 mo of age

    • Acquired—can occur from lead poisoning, rabies, trauma, inflammation of vagus nerve

      • 1.5 to 13 yr of age

    • Idiopathic—seen in middle-age to old large- and giant-breed dogs; castrated dogs and cats have a higher incidence than female and non-neutered males


Laryngeal paralysis1

Laryngeal Paralysis

  • Signs—

    • Inspiratory __________________________

    • Resp distress

    • Loss of endurance

    • Voice change

    • Dyspnea/cyanosis/complete resp collapse

  • Dx— ________________________ will show laryngeal abductor m. (away from midline) dysfunction

  • Rx—surgical intervention including:

    • Arytenoidectomy

    • Removal of vocal folds

  • Client info—prognosis is guarded to good; do not breed if hereditary


Laryngeal paralysis2

Laryngeal Paralysis


Megaesophagus

Megaesophagus

  • Causes-lack of _______________________ (3 types):

    • Hereditary—a gene for the disease is identified in wire-haired fox terriers and min schnauzers

    • Congenital—G Danes, G Shepherd, I Set, Newfound, Shar-Peis, greyhounds (no gene ID’ed)

      • evident about weaning time when solid food is introduced

      • Due to incomplete nerve development in esophagus

    • Acquired—may be seen at any age; Pb tox; may be associated with neuropathies (e.g., myasthenia gravis, tick paralysis)

  • Signs

    • _______________________ of undigested food

    • Respiratory problems (aspiration pneumonia)

    • Lack of growth


Megaesophagus1

Megaesophagus

Dx—barium swallow

Esophagus is 3 times normal diameter


Megaesophagus2

Megaesophagus

  • Rx—

    • ____________________ feeding (on platform, stairs)

    • Liquid or soft diet high in calories

    • Give several small feedings daily

    • Gastrostomy tube (long term) is an option

  • Client info

    • Prognosis—guarded to poor

    • Treatment aim is to reduce clinical signs and prevent __________________________________________

    • There is no cure


Tick paralysis

Tick Paralysis

  • Cause—female tick (Dermacenter variablis, D. andersoni) → salivary ________________________

    • Neurotoxin interfered with Ach at neuromuscular jct

    • Not seen in cats; humans are affected

  • Signs—

    • Gradual onset of ____________ changes and hind-limb ataxia (motor deficit) progressing to a flaccid, ascending paralysis (1-3 d)

    • Sensation is intact

    • Ticks on the dog

  • Rx

    • Remove ticks (manually or with dip)

      • Usually resolves in 1-3 d

    • Supportive care until dog recovers

      • Ventilation required for resp paralysis


Tick paralysis1

Tick Paralysis


Coonhound paralysis polyradiculoneuritis

Coonhound Paralysis (Polyradiculoneuritis )

-thought to be an immune response to an unknown etiologic factor in ________________________________

-some dogs will get it 1-2 wk after exposure, others exposed to same raccoon will not

  • Signs—(similar to tick paralysis and ____________________)

    • Weakness begins in hind limbs with paralysis progressing rapidly to a flaccid tetraplegia

    • Alert, afebrile animal

    • Loss of spinal reflexes (patella tap, etc)

    • Loss of voice; labored breathing; inability to

      lift head

    • May die of resp failure

    • May last for 2-3 mo (usually good Px)

  • Rx—supportive nursing care

  • Client info—

    • Dogs can be affected without exposure to raccoon

    • May require long-term nursing care

    • Some animals will regain total function, while more severely affected animals may not


Idiopathic facial nerve paralysis

Idiopathic Facial Nerve Paralysis

  • Etiology—unknown

  • Occurrence

    • C Span, Corgis, Boxers, E Set, DLH cats

  • Signs—

    • Older dogs (>5 y)

    • ________________ droop

    • Lip ____________________

    • Sialosis (drooling)

    • Deviation of nose

    • Collection of food in paralyzed side of mouth

    • Absence of menace and palpebral reflex


Idiopathic facial nerve paralysis1

Idiopathic Facial Nerve Paralysis

  • Rx—efficacy of corticosteroids unknown

    • Artificial tears to prevent___________________

    • Keep oral cavity clear of food

  • Client info—

    • Cause is unknown

    • Complete recovery does not usually occur

    • May develop ____________________________ (dry eye)

    • Animals may require life-long maintenance


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