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SOC 8412 SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS THEORY & METHODS Prof. David Knoke Fall 2009. SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS. An interdisciplinary perspective emphasizes structural relationships as key explanatory concepts & principles:
SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS
THEORY & METHODS
Prof. David Knoke
Contrast these structural-relational approaches tosubstantialistexplanations premised on “thing-concepts” as basic unit of analysis: actor essence, self-action, normative conformity, rational choice, variable-centric, and social identity approaches (Emirbayer 1997)
Network research involves the continual interplay of both theoretical and methodological tools to investigate a wide range of substantive questions
THEORY: Analytic concepts, principles, interrelated propositions that explain empirical observations
► Relational vs substantive perspectives (Emirbayer 1997)
► Social capital theories (Coleman 1990; Lin 2001)
► Structural holes (Burt 1997)
► Organizational field-nets (Kenis & Knoke 2002)
METHODS: Measures, data, computer techniques to test theoretical propositions
► Matrix algebraic methods (Wasserman & Faust 1994)
► Visualization programs (Freeman 2000)
Although antecedents lie in 1920s (Freeman 1996), Jacob L. Moreno pioneered social network analysis for his “psychodrama” therapy. He used sociomatrices and hand-drawn sociograms to display children’s likes and dislikes of classmates as directed graphs (digraphs).
Visualizationhas been a key component of social network analyses from the beginning, proliferating into today’s dazzling computer-based multidimensional displays (Freeman 2001)
What structure is evident in his arrangement of squares and circles?
SOURCE: James Moody. http://www.soc.sbs.ohio-state.edu/jwm/
SOURCE: Valdis Krebs http://www.orgnet.com/
SOURCE: Lothar Krempel http://www.mpi-fg-koeln.mpg.de/~lk/netvis.html
SOURCE: Brandes, Raab and Wagner (2001)
A detailed history of network analysis appears in John Scott. 1991. Social Network Analysis: A Handbook. London: Sage. <http://www.analytictech.com/mb119/tableof.htm>
SOURCE: Kapferer, Bruce. 1969. “Norms and the Manipulation of Relationships in a Work Context” in Social Networks in Urban Situations: Analyses of Personal Relationships in Central African Towns, edited by J. Clyde Mitchell.
SOURCE: Stephen J. Appold, University of Singapore
SOURCE: David Knoke. 2001. Changing Networks. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Institutionalization achieved with the 1978 founding of the International Network for Social Network Analysis and journal Social Networks
Sunbelt Social Network Conferences are held annually in North America or Europe (2009 San Diego, CA; 2010 Trento, Italy)
EGOS (European Group on Org Studies) annual colloquium has a Standing Group on Organizational Network Research (2009 Barcelona; 2010 Lisbon)
Barker, James R. 1999. The Discipline of Teamwork: Participation and Concertive Control. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Barnes, John. 1954. “Class and Committees in a Norwegian Island Parish.” Human Relations 7:39-58.
Bott, Elizabeth. 1957. Family and Social Network: Roles, Norms, and External Relationships in Ordinary Urban Families. London: Tavistock.
Freeman, Linton C. 1996. “Some Antecedents of Social Network Analysis.” Connections 19: 39-42.
Freeman, Linton C. 2000. “Visualizing Social Networks.” Journal of Social Structure <http://zeeb.library.cmu.edu:7850/JoSS/article.html> (July 24, 2002).
Gulati, Ranjay. 1995. “Social Structure and Alliance Formation Patterns: A Longitudinal Analysis.”Administrative Science Quarterly 40:619-652.
Laumann, Edward O. and Franz Urban Pappi. 1976. Networks of Collective Action: A Perspective on Community Influence Systems. New York: Academic Press.
Mitchell, J. Clyde. 1969. Social Networks in Urban Situations: Analyses of Personal Relationships in Central African Towns. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Moreno, J. L. 1934. Who Shall Survive? Washington: Nervous & Mental Disease Publishing Co.
White, Harrison C., Scott A. Boorman and Ronald L. Breiger. 1976. “Social Structure from Multiple Networks, I: Blockmodels of Roles and Positions.” American Journal of Sociology 81:730-780.
Wellman, Barry. 1979. “The Community Question: The Intimate Networks of East Yorkers.” American Journal of Sociology 84:1201-1231.