Earthquake and its Effects. Prepared by Celestine Dalrymple - Collins. l. next. OBJECTIVES At the end of the lesson students should be able to:- Define the term earthquakes Explain the occurrence of earthquakes Describe the causes of earthquakes
Celestine Dalrymple- Collins
At the end of the lesson students should be able to:-
What is an earthquake?
What are the causes of earthquakes?
How do earthquake occur?
What are the instruments used to measure the intensity of an earthquake?
What are the effects of earthquakes?
Describe the precautionary measures taken before, during and after an earthquake?
Describe how individuals and the state organization assist before, during and after an earthquake.
How do countries which experience earth manage during the time of disaster.
An earthquake is a sudden vibration in the earth’s crust.
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Read and formulate your own definition
Plate tectonics- the movement of crustal plates and the features which are formed at plate margins
Faulting- the breaking of the crustal plates caused by the forces of tension and or tension
Volcanic action –the sudden movement of molten materials from the mantle to the earths surface.
Plutonic action -the sudden movement of molten materials within the earth’s crust.
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Figure 1. Tectonic action
Figure 3.Tectonic activity
Figure 2. Volcanic and plutonic activities
Figure 4. Faulting activity
The earth’s crust is under stress and strain from forces of compression, tension and convection when the pressure gets too great the energy is released and the sudden movement occurs. Where the snap occur is the focus, above the focus on the earth’s surface is the epicenter. The force of the movement travel in waves called seismic waves. See figure 5.
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Figure 5, illustrate how the earthquake occurs
The Richter scale is used to measure the intensity of an earthquake.
The seismograph is used to record the magnitude of an earthquake.
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Figure 5, A seismograph
An earthquake reading on the seismograph
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Destruction of buildings, roads , bridges and utility poles.
Major and minor injury
Loss of life
Breakage of pipelines
Rock falls and land slides
Homeless and displaced people
Destruction of buildings
Avoid living close to fault lines or plate margins
Avoid areas with unstable rocks
Construct building according to the State building code
Read information on earthquakes listen to public information on earthquakes
Always have a first aid kit and extra storage of food
Educate all the members what to do during an earthquake
Have an emergency plan in place for everyone
Go under a table or at the door jam
Console all members
If driving Stop and park in a safe place
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Account for all members
Avoid contact with utility lines
Offer help when and where possible
Get help for yourself or other if possible
Listen to the media for official information
Cooperate with officials or profession rescue workers
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Account for individuals
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For a country you have studies describe the extent of the damage.
Describe how the people are coping after the earthquake.
Describe the assistance offered by individuals and state agencies to restore normal life.
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View earthquake zones in Jamaica
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What did you learn about earthquakes?
PLEASE do you journal entry now
Did you achieve the stated objectives?
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