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3-3 The Rise of Labor Unions. Warm-Up. What is a strike? Why would workers go on strike? What professions are Union?. The Rise of Organized Labor. are taking over what people had done in the past Growth of machine driven factories Relationship between boss and workers changes

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warm up
Warm-Up
  • What is a strike?
  • Why would workers go on strike?
  • What professions are Union?
the rise of organized labor

The Rise of Organized Labor

are taking over what people had done in the past

Growth of machine driven factories

Relationship between boss and workers changes

Skills were easily replaced

– long hours in poor conditions for low pay (usually women or children)

Children as young as 5 worked 27 cents for 14 hour days

Steel Mills – 7 day work week

Less than $500 a year for men $267 a year for women

No vacations or sick days

Seamstresses – 12+hours a day, 6 days a week

No unemployment

No $ for injuries suffered on the job

Wages were so low that everyone in the family had to work

Dangerous conditions – 1882, 675 laborers were

killed on the job

children at work
Children at work
  • 2 million children under 15 yrs. old worked
  • Hazardous textile mills, tobacco factories, garment sweatshops, coal mines
  • 12 hour days, 6 days a week
  • = reduced chances to build a better life as an adult
hazards at work
Hazards at Work
  • Lung damaging dust in textile mills
  • Cave-ins and gas explosions in mines
  • Vats of molten metal spilling without warning in steel mills.
  • Some workers was
  • Some workers were severely or
workers want better conditions
Workers want better conditions
  • Slowed their
  • Went on
  • Some workers to win better conditions
  • Most early efforts to form unions failed
knights of labor
Knights of Labor
  • At first held meetings in secret
  • Skilled and unskilled. (conductor and train cleaner of industrial rr union)
  • Open to immigrants, African Americans, women, and unskilled workers
  • – rallies and meetings
  • Shorter
  • End
  • for men and women
  • Workers and employers to share

ownership and profits

american federation of labor
American Federation of Labor
  • - Skilled workers only
  • A large organization made up of many different unions
  • – a union of persons working in the same trade then joined the AFL
  • Higher
  • Shorter
  • Improved
  • – negotiate with management for workers as a group
  • Supported the use of strikes
women at work
Women at Work
  • 1 million worked in factories
  • – spoke out against child labor
  • – International Ladies Garment Workers Union
    • Became a key member of AFL
    • 20,000 women and men walked off the job
    • After several weeks employers met demands of better pay and shorter hours
tragedy one helps union support the other hurts union support
TragedyOne helps union support the other hurts union support
  • Workers at the McCormick Harvester went on strike
  • McCormick hires , or replacements
  • Workers clash with strikebreakers outside the factory and police open fire (killing 4)
  • Thousands of workers gather to protest killings
  • Protest led by – people who oppose all forms of government
  • Bomb explodes killing 7 police officers
  • Anti-labor feelings sweep the nation – belief that unions were controlled by anarchists
slide11

– 150 people died

    • in NY that caught fire
    • Workers raced to exits that were locked
    • Fire trucks arrived but ladders could not reach upper floors
    • Workers jumped to their deaths
    • Shocked the public – new safety laws were put in place
country at the time
Country at the time
  • 1870-1900 – economy swung back and forth
  • 2 major depressions and 3 smaller recessions
  • In such hard times – workers or faced pay cuts
  • Violent and sometimes
  • Federal government usually sided with factory
  • Presidents sent in troops to end strikes
  • Courts usually ruled against strikers
    • Pullman and railroad car factory. Sherman Antitrust used against strikers???!!!
history of labor day
History of Labor Day

Fighting for Change

  • More than a century ago, workers were forced to deal with harsh conditions. They were paid very little, and they often worked 10- to 12-hour days. Men, women and even small children were forced to work even when they were sick. Tired of long hours and dangerous conditions, workers began organizing themselves into labor unions. On top of fighting for higher pay and shorter workdays, they also fought for the rights of children. The workers wanted employers to place limits on the age of their workers so that small children were not overworked or hurt in factories.

A Holiday for Workers

  • A New York City carpenter named Peter McGuire is credited for coming up the idea for Labor Day. In 1872, after working many long hours under poor conditions, McGuire rallied 100,000 workers to go on strike. The workers marched through the streets of New York City, demanding a better work environment.
  • McGuire spent a decade fighting for worker\'s rights. In 1882, he proposed the idea to create a special holiday for workers. On Tuesday, September 5, 1882, more than 10,000 workers hit the streets of New York City for the first ever Labor Day parade. Two years later the celebration was moved to the first Monday in September. And in 1894, Congress passed a law making Labor Day a national holiday.

A Relaxing Celebration

  • Americans celebrated the first Labor Day holiday with a parade, picnics and fireworks. Today, many people hit the road to enjoy the last of their summer vacation. Others enjoy the long weekend with picnics, backyard barbecues or just rest and relaxation.
homework
Homework
  • Use the Internet to find out the following
    • Minimum wage
    • Average work day or week in hours
    • Who determines safe working conditions (it’s a government agency)
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