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Biodiversity Notes. Short for Biological Diversity What does this mean?. Biological = Living organisms (plants and animals) Diversity = variety. Species diversity. number of species in a given area.

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biodiversity notes

Biodiversity Notes

Short for Biological Diversity

What does this mean?

Biological = Living organisms (plants and animals)

Diversity = variety

species diversity
Species diversity
  • number of species in a given area.
    • An island with 2 bird species and 1 lizard species is more diverse than an island with 3 bird species.
    • It’s numbers of species as well as categories of organisms.

http://www.ipgri.cgiar.org/themes/human/images/Vegetation_Cuba.jpg

http://www.al.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/photo/for/mngt/pine_plantation2.jpg

Higher Species Diversity

Lower Species Diversity

genetic diversity

http://www.sagarprabhu.com/gif/rice5.gif

Genetic diversity

A few of the hundreds of rice varieties found in India.

  • Variations of genes within a species.
    • Lots of distinct populations within a species (lots of varieties of rice in India--all from same species)
    • Genetic Variation within the population as a whole (high in Indian rhinos, low in cheetahs)

Some genetic diversity in potatoes …

http://www.potatoperspective.org/about_files/DSCN7746.jpg

ecosystem diversity
Ecosystem diversity
  • Variety of ecosystems within an area.
    • Wisconsin has about 9 different ecosystems, other states only have about 3, some >14, etc.
    • Very hard to measure due to overlapping boundary areas also called ecotones.

http://cropandsoil.oregonstate.edu/HJA_mo/images/Lookout_meadow_vs_forest.jpg

Coniferous Forest meeting a meadow

http://www.naturalhomemagazine.com/backissues/02-01/living_color/beach.jpg

Ocean meeting a beach

importance of biodiversity
Importance of Biodiversity:
  • Maintains soil quality: healthy bacteria, algae, fungi, mites, millipedes and worms help cycle nutrients
  • Maintains air quality: plants purify the air and filter harmful particles out of the air
  • Maintains water quality: variety of vegetation reduces erosion and purifies water by removing (using or absorbing) nutrients and pollution

http://www.srl.caltech.edu/personnel/krubal/rainforest/Edit560s6/www/images/plants/fngcone1.jpg

http://www.tropicalisland.de/KCH%20Sarawak%20-%20Bako%20National%20Park%20-%20Tropical%20rainforest2%201_b.jpg

http://www.pondsaway.com/images/wetlands1.jpg

importance continued

Intercropping cocoa plants with coconut trees.

Importance Continued …
  • Pest control:most crop pests can be controlled by other organisms for a longer period of time – helpful because many pests become resistant to synthetic pesticides
  • Pollination and crop production: More than 1/3 of world’s crops rely on healthy pollinators
  • (Potential) Medicines: many current and possible future medications found in areas with high biodiversity

http://images.jupiterimages.com/common/detail/75/81/22568175.jpg

http://www.bugwise.net.au/images/250/pollination_002.jpg

5 threats of biodiversity
5 Threats of Biodiversity
  • Habitat destruction/fragmentation
  • Invasive species
  • Population growth
  • Pollution
  • Overconsumption
slide8

Habitat Destruction

  • Changing a habitat to suit human needs…for housing, farming, etc.
  • This displaces animals/plants. As the human population grows, so does habitat destruction!
fragmentation
Fragmentation
  • Breaking up large habitats into smaller habitats.
  • Creates an “edge” habitat where “inner” habitat used to be. Some plants and animals cannot adapt to these changes.

http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/illinois/images/ozark_frag.jpg

invasive species
Invasive Species

Oftentimes, invasive species out-compete native species resulting in disruption of the ecosystem and food chain. Many native organisms are becoming endangered by this!

Synonyms include:

Introduced species, non-native species, exotic species and alien species…

  • Any organism that has been relocated somewhere other than its original habitat.

Zebra Mussel

Asian Beetle

population growth of humans
Population growth of Humans
  • Increasing population means greater demand for food, shelter, fuel and water.
  • This often leads to habitat loss, pollution, resource scarcity and overconsumption (in areas with enough money)
  • Humans are coming into greater (more frequent) contact with previously wild areas with high biodiversity

http://www1.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/2222903/2/istockphoto_2222903_crowded_city.jpg

http://www.chbr.noaa.gov/categories/stressors/images/pollution_sm.jpg

pollution
Pollution
  • Pollution can alter the habitat to the point where some plants and animals will not be able to adapt.
  • Global Climate Change--many species are intolerant to changes in temperature--affects feeding relationships and breeding patterns.
  • Acid rain/Air pollution-these types of issues do not respect borders. US acid rain fell in Canada destroying sugar maple forests which upset the amount/quality of maple syrup produced.
overconsumption
Overconsumption
  • Individuals consuming way more resources than needed to survive – sometimes more than is needed for a high standard of life
  • Industrialized nations make up 25% of the world’s population, but use 75% of its resources.
  • US makes up only 5% of world’s pop--causes 33% of world’s pollution!
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