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Chapter 24 Milling EIN 3390 Manufacturing Processes Spring, 2012. Milling is the basic process of progressive chip removal to produce a surface. Mill cutters have single or multiple teeth that rotate about an axis, removing material.

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Chapter 24 milling ein 3390 manufacturing processes spring 2012

Chapter 24 MillingEIN 3390 Manufacturing ProcessesSpring, 2012

24 1 introduction

  • Milling is the basic process of progressive chip removal to produce a surface.

  • Mill cutters have single or multiple teeth that rotate about an axis, removing material.

  • Often the desired surface in obtained in a single pass of cutter or workpiece with very good surface finish.

  • Milling is particularly well suited and widely used for mass production.

  • More flat surfaces are produced by milling than by any other machining processes.

24.1 Introduction

24 2 fundamentals of milling processes

  • Milling is classified in two categories:

    • Peripheral milling (also called Slab milling) - the surface is generated by teeth located on the periphery of the cutter body. The surface is parallel with the axis of rotation of the cutter.

    • End milling: also called facing milling, the surface generated is at a right angle to the cutter axis. Material is removed by the peripheral teeth and the face portion providing finishing action.

24.2 Fundamentals of Milling Processes

Peripheral mills

FIGURE 24-1 Peripheral milling can be performed on a horizontal-spindle milling machine. The

cutter rotates at rpm Ns , removing metal at cutting speed V. The allowance for starting and finishing the cut depends on the cutter diameter and depth of cut, d. The feed per tooth, ft and cutting speed are selected by the operator or process planner.

Peripheral Mills

Peripheral milling

The milling variables, such as cutting speed V and feed per tooth depend upon the work material, the tool material, and the specific process.

The rpm of the spindle is determined from the surface cutting speed V, the cutter diameter D (in inch) as below:

Ns = (12V)/(p D)

The feed of table fm, in inch per minute, is calculated:

fm = ft Ns n

Where ft, feed per tooth, and n is the number of teeth in the cutter.

The cutting time is:

Tm = (L + LA)/fm

Peripheral Milling

Peripheral milling1

The length of approach is:

LA = SQRT[D2/4 – (D/2-DOC)2 ]= SQRT(d(D-d))

The MRR is:

MRR = Volume/Tm = (LWd)/Tm = Wfmd in3/min

where W is width of the cut in inch, d is the depth of cut in inch.

If ignoring LA, the values for ft are given in Table 24-1, along with recommended cutting speeds in feet per minute.

Peripheral Milling

Face mills

FIGURE 24-2 CuttersFace milling is often performed on a spindle milling machine using a multiple-tooth cutter (n = 6 teeth) rotating Ns at rpm to produce cutting speed V. The workpiece feeds at rate fm in inches per minute past

the tool. The allowance depends on the tool diameter and the width of cut.

Face Mills

Face milling

The rpm of the spindle is determined from the surface cutting speed V, the cutter diameter D (in inch) as below:

Ns = (12V)/(p D)

The feed of table fm, in inch per minute, is calculated:

fm = ft Ns n

Where ft, feed per tooth, and n is the number of teeth in the cutter.

The cutting time is:

Tm = (L + LA+ L0)/fm

The MRR is:

MRR = Volume/Tm = (LWd)/Tm = Wfmd in3/min

For a setup where the tool doesn’t completely pass over the workpiece,

L0 = LA = SQRT(W(D – W)) for W < D/2

L0 = LA = D/2 for W>=D/2

Face Milling

Face milling example

For a 4” diameter, six-tooth end mill, using carbide inserts (Fig 24-3), the work material is low-alloy steel, annealed (BHN = 200). Please determine rpm at the spindle and the feed rate of the table.

Face Milling Example

Face milling example1

Using cutting data recommendations, select V = 400 sfpm with a ft = 0.008”/tooth.

Ns = (12V)/(p D) = (12 x 400)/ (3.14 x 4) = 392 rpm

The feed rate of table is:

fm = ft Ns n = 0.008 x 6 x 392 = 19”/min

If slab milling were being performed (see Fig. 24-4) with the same parameters being selected, the cutting time for face cutting is more than for slab milling because the allowances A0 for face milling are greater than for slab milling.

In milling, power consumption is usually the limiting factor.

Face Milling Example

Vertical and horizontal cutters

FIGURE 24-3 a ft = 0.008”/tooth.Face milling

viewed from above with vertical


FIGURE 24-4 Slab or side

milling being done as a up

milling process with horizontal


Vertical and Horizontal Cutters

End milling
End Milling a ft = 0.008”/tooth.

FIGURE 24-5 End milling a step feature in a block using a flat-bottomed, end mill cutter in a vertical spindle-milling machine. On left, photo. In middle, end view, table moving the block into the cutter. On right, side view, workpiece feeding right to left into tool.

End milling example

In Fig 24-5, an end mill with a ft = 0.008”/tooth.6 teeth on a 2” diameter (carbide cutter) is used to cut a step in 430F stainless. d = 0.375” and the depth of immersion is 1.25”. The vertical milling machine tool has a 5-hp motorwith an 80% efficiency. The specific horsepower for 430F stainless(BHN = 300) is 1.3hp/in3/min. Can the step be cut in one pass or in multiple passes?

End Milling Example

End milling example1

The maximum amount of material that can be removed per pass is usually limited by the available power.

Hp = HPs x MRR = HPS x fmW DOCmax

= HPs fm x DOI x DOCmax

From Table 24-1, select ft = 0.005 ipt, V = 250 fpm.

Ns = (12 x 250)/(3.14 x 2) = 477 rpm

fm = ft x n x Ns = 0.005 x 6 x 477 = 14.31”/min

The actual table feed rates for selected machine are 11”/min. or 16”/min. Select fm = 11”/min.

End Milling Example

End milling example2

DOC is usually limited by the max = (0.8hp)/(HPs fm DOI)

= (0.8x 5)/(1.3 x 11 x 1.25 ) = 0.225”

So two cutting passes are needed because 0.375/0.225 = 1.6.

The first pass: DOC1 = 0.225” rough cut

The second pass: DOC2 = 0.15”

For DOC2 = 0.15” the ft would be only slightly increased to 0.0057ipt

Ft = (0.8hp)/(HPs n Ns DOC DOI)

= (0.8 x 5)/(1.3 x 6 x 477 x 0.15 x 1.25)

= 0.0057ipt

End Milling Example

Up versus down milling

  • Up milling is usually limited by the or Conventional milling

    • The cutter rotates against the direction of feed of the workpeice.

    • The Chip is very thin at the beginning and increased along its length.

    • The cutter tends to push the work along and lift it upwards from the table. The action tends to loosen the workpiece from the fixture.

    • In the up milling, chips can be carried into the newly machined surface, causing the surface finish to be poorer than in down milling.

Up Versus Down Milling

Up versus down milling1

  • Down milling is usually limited by the or Climb milling

    the cutter rotates in the same direction as the direction of feed

    • Advantage:

      • The work piece is pulled into the cutter, eliminating any effects from looseness of the work table feed screw.

      • There is less tendency for the machined surface to show toothmarks, and the cutting process is smoother, with less chatter.

      • The cutting force tends to hold the workpiece against the machine table, permitting lower clamping force.

    • Disadvantage:

      • The maximum chip thickness is at the point of tooth contact with the work piece. Dulling the teeth more quickly, especially for workpiece with a hard surface.

Up Versus Down Milling

Climbing versus conventional mills

FIGURE 24-6 is usually limited by the Climb cut or

down milling versus

conventional cut or up milling

for slab or face or end milling.

Climbing versus Conventional Mills

Milling surface finish

  • Milling is an interrupted cutting process . is usually limited by the

    • Impact loading

    • Cyclic heating

    • Cycle cutting forces

      As show in Fig. 24-7, the cutting force, Fc, builds rapidly as the tool enters the work at A and progresses to B, peaks as the blade crosses the direction of feed at C, decreases to D, and then drops to zero abruptly upon exit.

      The interrupted-cut phenomenon explain in large part why milling cutter teeth are designed to have small positive or negative rake angles, particularly when the tool material is carbide or ceramic. Cutters made from HSS are with positive rakes, in the main, but must be run at lower speeds.

Milling Surface Finish

Facing mill
Facing Mill is usually limited by the

FIGURE 24-7 Conventional face milling (left) with cutting force diagram for Fc (right) showing the interrupted nature of the process. (From Metal Cutting Principles, 2nd ed., Ingersoll Cutting Tool Company.)

24 3 milling tools and cutters

24.3 Milling Tools and Cutters

Other mill cutter types

Other Mill Cutter Types

Typical cutter problems
Typical Cutter Problems face mills and end mills

End mill geometry

FIGURE 24-8 face mills and end millsSolid end mills are often coated. Insert tooling end mills come in a variety of sizes and are mounted on taper shanks.

End Mill Geometry

Facing mill geometry

FIGURE 24-9 face mills and end millsFace mills come

in many different designs using

many different insert geometries

and different mounting arbors.

Facing Mill Geometry

Side milling

FIGURE 24-10 face mills and end millsThe side-milling cutter can cut on sides and ends of the teeth, so it makes slots or grooves. However, only a few teeth are engaged at any one point in time, causing heavy torsional vibrations. The average chip thickness, hi, will be less than the feed per tooth, ft . The actual

feed per tooth fa will be less than feed per tooth selected, Ft .

Side Milling

Arbor milling

FIGURE 24-11 face mills and end millsArbor (two views) used on a horizontal-spindle milling machine on left. On right, a gangmilling

setup showing three side-milling cutters mounted on an arbor (A) with an outboard flywheel (B).

Arbor Milling

Helical mills

FIGURE 24-12 face mills and end millsThe chips are

formed progressively by the

teeth of a plain helical-tooth

milling cutter during up milling.

Helical Mills

Shaped cutters

  • Form Relieved Cutters face mills and end mills are used when intricate shapes are needed.

  • T-slot cutters are used to produce slots in material. An end mill is use first to produce the initial groove

  • A woodruff keyseat cutter is used to produce a slot in a shaft and come in standard sizes

  • Fly cutters are single toothed face mill cutters, with adjustable radii.

Shaped Cutters

Relieved cutter

FIGURE 24-13 face mills and end millsSolid form

relieved milling cutter, would be

mounted on an arbor in a

horizontal milling machine..

Relieved Cutter

24 4 machines for milling

  • The four most common types of manually controlled milling machines are listed below in order of increasing power (and therefore metal removal capability):

    • 1. Ram-type milling machines

    • 2. Column-and-knee-type milling machines

      • a. Horizontal spindle

      • b. Vertical spindle

    • 3. Fixed-bed-type milling machines

    • 4. Planer-type milling machines

24.4 Machines for Milling

Machines for milling

  • Milling machines whose motions are electronically controlled are listed in order of increasing production capacity and decreasing flexibility:

    • 1. Manual data input milling machines

    • 2. Programmable CNC (Computer Numerical Controlled) milling machines

    • 3. Machining centers (tool changer and pallet exchange capability)

    • 4. Flexible Manufacturing Cell and Flexible Manufacturing System

    • 5. Transfer lines

Machines for Milling

Basic mill construction

  • Most mills consist of are listed in order of increasing production capacity and decreasing flexibility:column-and-knee designs

    • The column is mounted on a base and the spindle mounted on a knee extending from the column.

    • The knee has vertical movement

    • The material in mounted on a table with longitudinal movement, and the table is mounted on a saddle with transverse movement

  • Most common of this type mill is the Ram mill which has a motor and pulley system mounted on the top of the column.

Basic Mill Construction

Major components of a plain column and knee type milling machine
Major Components of a Plain Column-and-Knee-Type Milling Machine

FIGURE 24-14 Major components of a plain column-and-knee-type milling machine, which can have horizontal spindle shown on the left, or a turret type machine with a vertical spindle, shown on the right. The workpiece and workholder on the table can be translated in X, Y, and Z directions with respect to the tool.

Ram type knee and column machine

FIGURE 24-15 MachineThe ram-type knee-and-column milling machine is one of the most versatile and popular milling machine tools ever designed.

Ram-type Knee-and Column Machine

Bed type milling machine

  • Made for Machinedeep cuts and heavy material removal, the bed only had horizontal movement

  • Once the bed is set up, the spindle height is not changed during operation.

  • These machines are very common due to their ease of use.

Bed Type Milling Machine

Bed type mill

FIGURE 24-16 MachineBed-type

vertical-spindle heavy-duty

production machine tools for

milling usually have three axes

of motion.

Bed Type Mill

Planer type mill

  • Planer type mills can have Machineseveral heads to remove large amounts of material while the material is fed slowly into the machine.

  • Systems are setup typically for single pass operations.

  • These are advantageous for large work pieces requiring heavy material removal.

Planer Type Mill

Large planer type milling machine

FIGURE 24-17 MachineLarge planertype milling machine. Inset shows 90° head being used.

(Courtesy of Cosa Corporation.)

Large Planer-type Milling Machine

Milling machine selection

  • When purchasing or using a milling machine, consider the following issues:

    • 1. Spindle orientation and rpm

    • 2. Machine capability (accuracy and precision)

    • 3. Machine capacity (size of workpieces)

    • 4. Horsepower available at spindle (usually 70% of machine horsepower)

    • 5. Automatic tool changing

Milling Machine Selection

Hw for chapter 24

Review Questions: following issues:

2, and 9 (pages 674)


1, 2, 6. (page 675)


For HW 1: Number of teeth n = 8.

For HW 6:

Material of workpiece: Cast iron, medium hardness, d = DOC = 0.214”

HW for Chapter 24

Hw for chapter 241

Problems following issues::

1 (page 675)

(Calculate the table speed fm)

HW for Chapter 24

Hw for chapter 242

Problems following issues::

2 (page 675)

HW for Chapter 24