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Respiration. Chapter 42. Respiration. Gas exchange Movement of gas across membrane Diffusion (passive) To improve gas absorption Increase surface area for diffusion Decrease distance diffused gas travels Respiratory organs. Fish. Amphibians. Lungs Cutaneous respiration. Amphibians.

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respiration

Respiration

Chapter 42

respiration1
Respiration
  • Gas exchange
  • Movement of gas across membrane
  • Diffusion (passive)
  • To improve gas absorption
  • Increase surface area for diffusion
  • Decrease distance diffused gas travels
  • Respiratory organs
amphibians
Amphibians
  • Lungs
  • Cutaneous respiration
birds
Birds
  • Parabronchi (lungs)
  • Air sacs
slide7

Fig. 42-26

Air

Air

Anterior

air sacs

Trachea

Posterior

air sacs

Lungs

Lungs

Air tubes

(parabronchi)

in lung

1 mm

EXHALATION

Air sacs empty; lungs fill

INHALATION

Air sacs fill

anatomy
Anatomy
  • Mouth (nose)
  • Pharynx (back of throat)
  • Larynx (voice box)
  • Trachea
anatomy3
Anatomy
  • Bronchi (Bronchus)
  • Bronchioles
  • Alveoli
  • Air sacs
  • Gas exchange
  • One cell layer thick
  • Lung tissue consists of millions
anatomy6
Anatomy
  • Lungs
  • 3 right lobes
  • RUL, RML, RLL
  • 2 left lobes
  • LUL, LLL
anatomy9
Anatomy
  • Lung covered by a double folded membrane
  • Visceral pleural membrane:
  • Covers the lung
  • Parietal pleural membrane:
  • Lines inner wall of thoracic cavity
anatomy10
Anatomy
  • Pleural cavity:
  • Space between two membranes
  • Filled with fluid
  • Helps with movement of lungs
breathing
Breathing
  • Diaphragm
  • Muscle
  • Separates thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity
  • Intercostal muscles
  • Muscles between the ribs
inhalation inspiration
Inhalation (inspiration)
  • Diaphragm contracts & flattens
  • Intercostal muscles contract
  • Raises the ribs
  • Increases volume (decreases pressure)
  • Air flows into the lungs
exhalation expiration
Exhalation (expiration)
  • Diaphragm relaxes & elevates
  • Intercostal muscles relax
  • Ribs lower
  • Decreased volume
  • Forces air out
breathing measurements
Breathing measurements
  • Tidal volume
  • Amount of air moved into & out of lungs at rest
  • Vital capacity
  • Maximum amount of air that can be expired after forceful exhalation
control of breathing
Control of breathing
  • Normal breathing
  • Medulla oblongata
  • Respiratory control center
  • Neurons send impulse for muscles (diaphragm/intercostal) to contract
  • Inspiration (inhalation)
  • Stop sending impulse
  • Expiration (exhalation)
control of breathing1
Control of breathing
  • Blood O2 & CO2 in normal range
  • Neurons respond to a change in O2 & CO2
  • More response to CO2
  • Increase CO2
  • Increases carbonic acid (H2CO3)
  • CO2 +H2O⇆H2CO3 ⇆H+HCO3
  • Lowers pH
control of breathing2
Control of breathing
  • Stimulates peripheral chemoreceptors
  • Aorta & carotids
  • Send impulses to respiratory control center (medulla oblongata)
  • Stimulates increased breathing
control of breathing3
Control of breathing
  • Central chemoreceptors
  • Located in brain
  • Respond to increased amount of CO2
  • Peripheral receptors immediate response
  • Central receptors maintained response until pH is back to normal
transport of gas
Transport of gas
  • Hemoglobin
  • Contains four heme groups
  • Center of each heme group is an iron
  • Oxygen binds the iron (4 O2 molecules)
  • Oxygen in blood is mostly bound to Hgb
  • Little is dissolved plasma
transport of gas2
Transport of gas
  • Oxyhemoglobin
  • Hemoglobin full of oxygen
  • Lungs
  • Deoxyhemoglobin
  • Hemoglobin releases some oxygen
  • Capillaries
transport of gas3
Transport of gas

E:\Chapter_42\A_PowerPoint_Lectures\42_Lecture_Presentation\42_30CO2TissuesToBlood_A.html

E:\Chapter_42\A_PowerPoint_Lectures\42_Lecture_Presentation\42_30CO2BloodToLungs_A.html

E:\Chapter_42\A_PowerPoint_Lectures\42_Lecture_Presentation\42_30O2LungsToBlood_A.html

transport of gas4
Transport of gas
  • Blood that leaves lungs 97% saturated
  • Circulates oxygen diffuses into tissues
  • 75% saturated
  • Allows for reserves of oxygen
  • Exercise
  • Cardiac arrest
transport of gas5
Transport of gas
  • Decreased pH
  • Lower affinity of oxygen for hemoglobin
  • Releases oxygen
  • Increased temperature
  • Lower affinity
  • Exercise
  • Increased CO2, decreased pH, increased temperature
  • Increased release of O2 to muscles
transport of gas6
Transport of gas
  • CO2
  • In tissues
  • Small amount bound to protein part of Hgb
  • Remaining CO2 in RBC
  • Forms carbonic acid H2CO3
  • Carbonic anhydrase
transport of gas7
Transport of gas
  • Carbonic acid separates
  • Bicarbonate (HCO3-1) & H+1
  • Buffer
  • Blood at alveoli
  • Carbonic anhydrase reverses
  • Forms water & CO2
  • CO2 diffuses into lungs
abnormalities
Abnormalities
  • Emphysema
  • Lung disease that destroys alveoli sacs
  • Decreases vital capacity
  • Traps air
  • Hypoventilation
  • Decreased air movement increased CO2
  • Hyperventilation
  • Increased air movement decreased CO2
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