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Energy Consumption, Transformation and Sources. Lecture #3 HNRT 228 Energy and the Environment. iClicker Question. Fossil fuels are derived from biological material produced A at the time of the industrial revolution B about 300 million years ago C about 1 million years ago

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Energy consumption transformation and sources

Energy Consumption, Transformation and Sources

Lecture #3

HNRT 228

Energy and the Environment


Iclicker question
iClicker Question

  • Fossil fuels are derived from biological material produced

    • A at the time of the industrial revolution

    • B about 300 million years ago

    • C about 1 million years ago

    • D about 1 billion years ago

    • E at the turn of the previous century


Iclicker question1
iClicker Question

  • At the turn of this century (2000) most energy was derived from

    • A Coal

    • B Wood

    • C Natural Gas

    • D Oil

    • E Nuclear Power


Iclicker question2
iClicker Question

  • Oil use in the U.S. has always risen since 1960.

    • A True

    • B False


Iclicker question3
iClicker Question

  • Which of the following countries has the lowest gas taxes?

    • A France

    • B Germany

    • C Spain

    • D Japan

    • E USA



Iclicker question4
iClicker Question

  • The United States imports more energy than it produces?

    • A True

    • B False


Energy flow from source to use usa 2008
Energy Flow from Source to Use (USA 2008)

Note Changes from 2003, page 17 of textbook


Types of energy and their transformation
TYPES OF ENERGYand their Transformation

Mechanical, Electromagnetic, Electrical,

Chemical and Thermal


What is mechanical energy

Energy due to a object’s motion (kinetic) or position (potential).

The bowling ball has mechanical energy.

When the ball strikes the pins, mechanical energy is transferred to the pins!

What is Mechanical Energy?



What is electromagnetic energy

(potential).Light” energy

Includes energy from gamma rays, xrays, ultraviolet rays, visible light, infrared rays, microwave and radio bands

What is Electromagnetic Energy?


What is electrical energy

Energy caused by the movement of electrons (potential).

Easily transported through power lines and converted into other forms of energy

What is Electrical Energy?


What is chemical energy

Energy that is available for release from chemical reactions.

The chemical bonds in a matchstick store energy that is transformed into thermal energy when the match is struck.

What is Chemical Energy?



What is thermal energy

Heat energy reactions.

The heat energy of an object determines how active its atoms are.

A hot object is one whose atoms and molecules are excited and show rapid movement.

A cooler object's molecules and atoms will show less movement.

What is Thermal Energy?


Iclicker time
iClicker Time! reactions.

What type of energy cooks food in a microwave oven?

A Mechanical

B Electromagnetic

C Electrical

D Chemical

What type of energy is the spinning plate inside of a microwave oven?

A Mechanical

B Electromagnetic

C Electrical

D Chemical

E Thermal


Iclicker time1
iClicker Time! reactions.

Electrical energy is transported to your house through power lines.

When you plug an electric fan to a power outlet, electrical energy is transform into what type of energy?

A Mechanical

B Electromagnetic

C Electrical

D Chemical

E Thermal


Iclicker time2
iClicker Time! reactions.

What type of energy results when you turn on an electric lamp? [Electrical to…]

A Mechanical

B Electromagnetic

C Electrical

D Chemical

E Thermal


What types of energy are shown below
What types of energy are shown below? reactions.

A Mechanical

B Electromagnetic

C Thermal

D Chemical

E More than one of the above


What type of energy is shown below
What type of energy is shown below? reactions.

A Mechanical

B Electromagnetic

C Electrical

D Chemical

E Thermal


What types of energy are shown below1
What types of energy are shown below? reactions.

A Mechanical

B Electromagnetic

C Thermal

D Chemical

E More than one of the above


What type of energy is shown below1
What type of energy is shown below? reactions.

  • A Mechanical

  • B Electromagnetic

  • C Electrical

  • D Chemical

  • E Thermal


What type of energy is shown below2
What type of energy is shown below? reactions.

  • A Mechanical

  • B Electromagnetic

  • C Electrical

  • D Chemical

  • E Thermal


Where does our energy come from for
Where does our energy come from for…? reactions.

  • Electric light

  • Mobile phones

  • Power for your mp3

  • TV

  • Hot Water


Energy for these things come from reactions.Energy Resources, that are converted into energy that we can easily use.

Electricity is the main form of energy that we use and can power or charge what we need energy for.


To generate electricity
To generate electricity… reactions.

  • You need an energy source, e.g. coal

  • This is burnt to produce heat or steam

  • The heat or steam then drives a turbine

  • The turbine then can drive a generator

  • The generator then produces electricity

  • The electricity is then transported in cables to where it is needed


Energy resources can be divided into 2 categories
Energy Resources can be divided into 2 categories: reactions.

  • Non-Renewable Resources

    For example – coal, oil, gas, uranium or lignite

    Once used these resources CANNOT be used again

    2. Renewable Resources

    For example – wind, water or solar

    These resources can be used over and over again


Non renewable resources coal
Non-Renewable Resources: COAL reactions.

What is it?

  • Formed underground from decaying plant material

    How much left in the world?

  • About 200 years

    Advantages?

  • Plenty left

  • Mining is getting more efficient

    Disadvantages?

  • Pollution: CO2 emissions (linked to global warming), SO2 (linked to acid rain)

  • Heavy & bulky to transport


Non renewable resources oil
Non-Renewable Resources: OIL reactions.

What is it?

  • Formed underground from decaying animal and plant material

    How much left in the world?

  • Estimates vary, but average about 40 years

    Advantages?

  • Quite easy to transport

  • Efficient in producing energy

  • Less pollution than coal

    Disadvantages?

  • Not much left

  • Pollution: air and danger of water pollution through spills


Non renewable resources natural gas
Non-Renewable Resources: NATURAL GAS reactions.

What is it?

  • Formed underground from decaying animal and plant material

    How much left in the world?

  • Estimates vary from 60-100 years

    Advantages?

  • Clean, least polluting of all non-renewables

  • Easy to transport

    Disadvantages?

  • Some air pollution

  • Danger of explosions


Non renewable resources nuclear
Non-Renewable Resources: NUCLEAR reactions.

What is it?

  • Uses uranium, naturally found in some rocks

    How much left in the world?

  • Not known

    Advantages?

  • Not much waste and few CO2 emissions released, as well as, few other greenhouse gases

    Disadvantages?

  • High cost to build and close down power stations.

  • Waste is radioactive. Problem with getting rid of waste safely


Non renewable resources lignite between peat and coal
Non-Renewable Resources: LIGNITE (between peat and coal) reactions.

What is it?

  • Formed underground from decaying plant material

    How much left in the world?

  • Estimates vary, but average ~30 years

    Advantages?

  • A local resource good for generating electricity

    Disadvantages?

  • Air pollution, scarring of landscape through open-cast mining

  • High moisture content


Why is the term, FOSSIL FUEL used for coal, oil, gas and lignite?A Because they all contain fossils.B Because they were once food sources for things that are now fossils.C Because they are derived from living matter of a previous geological age.D Because of their energy per unit of mass.E Because Prof. Geller said so.


Renewable resources wind
Renewable Resources: WIND lignite?

What is it? It the movement of air from high to low pressure

How much left? Lots

Advantages? No pollution

Disadvantages? Winds change all the

time, not predictable


Renewable resources solar
Renewable Resources: SOLAR lignite?

What is it? Energy from the sun

How much left? Lots

Advantages? No pollution, can be used in remote areas

Disadvantages? Can be expensive, needs sunlight

At night it doesn’t work


Renewable resources bio energy
Renewable Resources: BIO-ENERGY lignite?

What is it? Biomass and Biogas –

  • fermented animal or plant waste

  • vegetation from sustainable sources

    How much left? Lots

    Advantages? Good availability

    Disadvantages? Can be expensive to set up


Renewable resources hydro
Renewable Resources: HYDRO lignite?

What is it? Movement of water drives a turbine

How much left? Lots

Advantages? No CO2 emissions, can control flooding and provide a good water supply to an area

Disadvantages? Large areas maybe flooded. Visual and water pollution


Renewable resources geothermal
Renewable Resources: GEOTHERMAL lignite?

What is it? Heat from the ground – often used to heat water

How much left? Lots

Advantages? No CO2 emissions

Disadvantages? Expensive and can only be used in certain parts of the world


Renewable resources water tidal
Renewable Resources: WATER & TIDAL lignite?

What is it? Movement of sea drives turbines

How much left? Lots

Advantages? Can produce a lot of electricity, no CO2 emissions

Disadvantages? Not many suitable sites


Group Think lignite?

  • Draw a flow map showing the flow of energy transformations in a car from starting vehicle to driving. You should have 5 different types of energy.


Energy transfer
Energy Transfer lignite?

_________

_______

_______

________

________

_______

_______

____________


In class group question
In-Class Group Question lignite?

  • Compare and contrast differences and similarities (changes in time) in the two diagrams depicting energy flow from source to use in the USA, from 2003 (in textbook), and 2008 (in presentation today).

    • Please remember to write complete sentences in addressing your comparisons.


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