Energy consumption transformation and sources
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Energy Consumption, Transformation and Sources. Lecture #3 HNRT 228 Energy and the Environment. iClicker Question. Fossil fuels are derived from biological material produced Aat the time of the industrial revolution Babout 300 million years ago Cabout 1 million years ago

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Energy consumption transformation and sources

Energy Consumption, Transformation and Sources

Lecture #3

HNRT 228

Energy and the Environment


Iclicker question

iClicker Question

  • Fossil fuels are derived from biological material produced

    • Aat the time of the industrial revolution

    • Babout 300 million years ago

    • Cabout 1 million years ago

    • Dabout 1 billion years ago

    • Eat the turn of the previous century


Iclicker question1

iClicker Question

  • At the turn of this century (2000) most energy was derived from

    • ACoal

    • BWood

    • CNatural Gas

    • DOil

    • ENuclear Power


Iclicker question2

iClicker Question

  • Oil use in the U.S. has always risen since 1960.

    • ATrue

    • BFalse


Iclicker question3

iClicker Question

  • Which of the following countries has the lowest gas taxes?

    • AFrance

    • BGermany

    • CSpain

    • DJapan

    • EUSA


Overview of energy production consumption

Overview of Energy Production/Consumption


Iclicker question4

iClicker Question

  • The United States imports more energy than it produces?

    • ATrue

    • BFalse


Energy flow from source to use usa 2008

Energy Flow from Source to Use (USA 2008)

Note Changes from 2003, page 17 of textbook


Types of energy and their transformation

TYPES OF ENERGYand their Transformation

Mechanical, Electromagnetic, Electrical,

Chemical and Thermal


What is mechanical energy

Energy due to a object’s motion (kinetic) or position (potential).

The bowling ball has mechanical energy.

When the ball strikes the pins, mechanical energy is transferred to the pins!

What is Mechanical Energy?


Other examples of mechanical energy

Other Examples of Mechanical Energy


What is electromagnetic energy

“Light” energy

Includes energy from gamma rays, xrays, ultraviolet rays, visible light, infrared rays, microwave and radio bands

What is Electromagnetic Energy?


What is electrical energy

Energy caused by the movement of electrons

Easily transported through power lines and converted into other forms of energy

What is Electrical Energy?


What is chemical energy

Energy that is available for release from chemical reactions.

The chemical bonds in a matchstick store energy that is transformed into thermal energy when the match is struck.

What is Chemical Energy?


Examples of chemical energy

Examples of Chemical Energy


What is thermal energy

Heat energy

The heat energy of an object determines how active its atoms are.

A hot object is one whose atoms and molecules are excited and show rapid movement.

A cooler object's molecules and atoms will show less movement.

What is Thermal Energy?


Iclicker time

iClicker Time!

What type of energy cooks food in a microwave oven?

AMechanical

BElectromagnetic

CElectrical

DChemical

What type of energy is the spinning plate inside of a microwave oven?

AMechanical

BElectromagnetic

CElectrical

DChemical

EThermal


Iclicker time1

iClicker Time!

Electrical energy is transported to your house through power lines.

When you plug an electric fan to a power outlet, electrical energy is transform into what type of energy?

AMechanical

BElectromagnetic

CElectrical

DChemical

EThermal


Iclicker time2

iClicker Time!

What type of energy results when you turn on an electric lamp? [Electrical to…]

AMechanical

BElectromagnetic

CElectrical

DChemical

EThermal


What types of energy are shown below

What types of energy are shown below?

AMechanical

BElectromagnetic

CThermal

DChemical

EMore than one of the above


What type of energy is shown below

What type of energy is shown below?

AMechanical

BElectromagnetic

CElectrical

DChemical

EThermal


What types of energy are shown below1

What types of energy are shown below?

AMechanical

BElectromagnetic

CThermal

DChemical

EMore than one of the above


What type of energy is shown below1

What type of energy is shown below?

  • AMechanical

  • BElectromagnetic

  • CElectrical

  • DChemical

  • EThermal


What type of energy is shown below2

What type of energy is shown below?

  • AMechanical

  • BElectromagnetic

  • CElectrical

  • DChemical

  • EThermal


Where does our energy come from for

Where does our energy come from for…?

  • Electric light

  • Mobile phones

  • Power for your mp3

  • TV

  • Hot Water


Energy consumption transformation and sources

Energy for these things come from Energy Resources, that are converted into energy that we can easily use.

Electricity is the main form of energy that we use and can power or charge what we need energy for.


To generate electricity

To generate electricity…

  • You need an energy source, e.g. coal

  • This is burnt to produce heat or steam

  • The heat or steam then drives a turbine

  • The turbine then can drive a generator

  • The generator then produces electricity

  • The electricity is then transported in cables to where it is needed


Energy resources can be divided into 2 categories

Energy Resources can be divided into 2 categories:

  • Non-Renewable Resources

    For example – coal, oil, gas, uranium or lignite

    Once used these resources CANNOT be used again

    2. Renewable Resources

    For example – wind, water or solar

    These resources can be used over and over again


Non renewable resources coal

Non-Renewable Resources: COAL

What is it?

  • Formed underground from decaying plant material

    How much left in the world?

  • About 200 years

    Advantages?

  • Plenty left

  • Mining is getting more efficient

    Disadvantages?

  • Pollution: CO2 emissions (linked to global warming), SO2 (linked to acid rain)

  • Heavy & bulky to transport


Non renewable resources oil

Non-Renewable Resources: OIL

What is it?

  • Formed underground from decaying animal and plant material

    How much left in the world?

  • Estimates vary, but average about 40 years

    Advantages?

  • Quite easy to transport

  • Efficient in producing energy

  • Less pollution than coal

    Disadvantages?

  • Not much left

  • Pollution: air and danger of water pollution through spills


Non renewable resources natural gas

Non-Renewable Resources: NATURAL GAS

What is it?

  • Formed underground from decaying animal and plant material

    How much left in the world?

  • Estimates vary from 60-100 years

    Advantages?

  • Clean, least polluting of all non-renewables

  • Easy to transport

    Disadvantages?

  • Some air pollution

  • Danger of explosions


Non renewable resources nuclear

Non-Renewable Resources: NUCLEAR

What is it?

  • Uses uranium, naturally found in some rocks

    How much left in the world?

  • Not known

    Advantages?

  • Not much waste and few CO2 emissions released, as well as, few other greenhouse gases

    Disadvantages?

  • High cost to build and close down power stations.

  • Waste is radioactive. Problem with getting rid of waste safely


Non renewable resources lignite between peat and coal

Non-Renewable Resources: LIGNITE (between peat and coal)

What is it?

  • Formed underground from decaying plant material

    How much left in the world?

  • Estimates vary, but average ~30 years

    Advantages?

  • A local resource good for generating electricity

    Disadvantages?

  • Air pollution, scarring of landscape through open-cast mining

  • High moisture content


Energy consumption transformation and sources

Why is the term, FOSSIL FUEL used for coal, oil, gas and lignite?ABecause they all contain fossils.BBecause they were once food sources for things that are now fossils.CBecause they are derived from living matter of a previous geological age.DBecause of their energy per unit of mass.EBecause Prof. Geller said so.


Renewable resources wind

Renewable Resources: WIND

What is it? It the movement of air from high to low pressure

How much left? Lots

Advantages? No pollution

Disadvantages? Winds change all the

time, not predictable


Renewable resources solar

Renewable Resources: SOLAR

What is it? Energy from the sun

How much left? Lots

Advantages? No pollution, can be used in remote areas

Disadvantages? Can be expensive, needs sunlight

At night it doesn’t work


Renewable resources bio energy

Renewable Resources: BIO-ENERGY

What is it? Biomass and Biogas –

  • fermented animal or plant waste

  • vegetation from sustainable sources

    How much left? Lots

    Advantages? Good availability

    Disadvantages? Can be expensive to set up


Renewable resources hydro

Renewable Resources: HYDRO

What is it? Movement of water drives a turbine

How much left? Lots

Advantages? No CO2 emissions, can control flooding and provide a good water supply to an area

Disadvantages? Large areas maybe flooded. Visual and water pollution


Renewable resources geothermal

Renewable Resources: GEOTHERMAL

What is it? Heat from the ground – often used to heat water

How much left? Lots

Advantages? No CO2 emissions

Disadvantages? Expensive and can only be used in certain parts of the world


Renewable resources water tidal

Renewable Resources: WATER & TIDAL

What is it? Movement of sea drives turbines

How much left? Lots

Advantages? Can produce a lot of electricity, no CO2 emissions

Disadvantages? Not many suitable sites


Energy consumption transformation and sources

Group Think

  • Draw a flow map showing the flow of energy transformations in a car from starting vehicle to driving. You should have 5 different types of energy.


Energy transfer

Energy Transfer

_________

_______

_______

________

________

_______

_______

____________


In class group question

In-Class Group Question

  • Compare and contrast differences and similarities (changes in time) in the two diagrams depicting energy flow from source to use in the USA, from 2003 (in textbook), and 2008 (in presentation today).

    • Please remember to write complete sentences in addressing your comparisons.


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