Nguyen viet cuong
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Comments on the research proposal “School Attendance, Labor Supply and Formality. An Impact Evaluation of PANES” (Team leader: Veronica Amarante). Nguyen Viet Cuong. Summary.

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Nguyen Viet Cuong

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Nguyen viet cuong

Comments on the research proposal“School Attendance, Labor Supply and Formality. An Impact Evaluation of PANES”(Team leader: Veronica Amarante)

Nguyen Viet Cuong



  • The research aims to evaluate the impacts of a cash transfer program (called Ingreso Ciudadano of PANES) on child labor, child school attendance, household income and labor:

    • Regression discontinuity.

    • Difference-in-differences.

  • The research questions are well defined and very policy relevant:

    • Inform policy makers on the impact of an important antipoverty program.

    • Be helpful for the program improvement.

Program description

Program description

  • The program selection should be discussed more detailed.

    • It is not clear what criteria and the threshold are used to select the beneficiaries. Is income or score/index (estimated from probit model) used?

  • In addition, it is not very necessary to discuss other components of PANES.

Nguyen viet cuong


  • The date of administrative records of PANES is not mentioned in the proposal.

  • Which data are used as the baseline? If the administrative data are combined with the follow-up surveys for difference-in-differences estimation, they should be consistent in terms of questionnaires, interview instruments and sampling design.



  • Economic theory on impact of transfers on income and labor?

    • Transfers increase investment => higher long-run impact.

    • Transfer can reduce working incentive => lower long-run/short-run impact.

Methodology cont

Methodology (cont.)

  • Regression discontinuity:

    • Endogeneity of the transfer program.

    • Endogeneity of score?

  • Difference-in-differences:

    • Attrition problem.

    • Estimation of the impact of the program at the threshold like the regression discontinuity.

  • Other methods:

    • Matching.

    • Fixed-effect regression using panel data.

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