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Lesson 33 Nov. 4-8, 2013. Perfect Passive Participles Passive Voice: Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Perfect Tenses. Perfect Passive Participles (aka, “Party- ciples !!!”). A PARTICIPLE is a form of a verb that is used as an adjective. The past participle in English usually ends in – ed :

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Lesson 33 nov 4 8 2013

Lesson 33Nov. 4-8, 2013

Perfect Passive Participles

Passive Voice: Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Perfect Tenses


Perfect passive participles aka party ciples
Perfect Passive Participles(aka, “Party-ciples!!!”)

  • A PARTICIPLE is a form of a verb that is used as an adjective. The past participle in English usually ends in –ed:

  • e.g.: carried, beloved

  • With other verbs, it is irregular:

  • e.g.: shown, eaten, seen, heard.


Perfect passive participles
Perfect Passive Participles

  • Like adjectives, participles modify nouns.

  • The baby, CARRIED by its mother, stopped crying.

  • “carried” modifies “baby”

  • The sheets, EATEN by moths, were no longer useful.

  • “eaten” modifies “sheets”

  • SEEN cheating by her boyfriend, the girl decided now was as good a time as any to break up.

  • “seen” modifies “girl”


Perfect passive participles1
Perfect Passive Participles

  • In Latin, the PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE is the 4th PRINCIPAL PART of the verb.

  • It generally ends in –tus or –sus


All About Verbs

Each verb has 4 principal parts

porto

portare

portavi

portatus

First Person Singular Present Active“I carry”

Present Active

Infinitive

“to carry”

First Person

Singular

Perfect Active

“I carried”

Perfect Passive

Participle

“having been carried”

or “carried”


Perfect passive participles2
Perfect Passive Participles

  • Mitto, mittere, misi, MISSUS

  • MISSUS: “sent” or “having been sent”

  • These words decline in 1st/2nd declensions just like any other –us, -a, -um adjective. (but only the –us ending is listed in your vocabulary)


Participles
Participles

  • Examples:

  • cibusportatus:

  • “the carried food”

  • litteraemissae:

  • “the sent letter”


Participles and passive voice verbs
Participles and Passive Voice Verbs

  • The perfect passive participle (part 4 of the verb’s principal parts) is used to make PASSIVE VOICE of the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect tenses.

  • Perfect passive tenses are unique in that they use 2 words: a participle and a form of sum.

  • Remember that the participle is an adjective, so we’re going to have to tweak its ending a little bit as we conjugate from singular to plural and from gender to gender.


Perfect passive tense
Perfect Passive Tense

  • Take the perfect passive participle of a verb.

  • Add the present tense of “sum” as a helping verb.

Yes, you’re using the PRESENT tense of sum to form a PAST tense verb.

Be careful not to translate “sum” as present tense when it’s partnered up with a participle. You’ll see why on the next page….


Participle endings agree in case number and gender with the subject
Participle Endings Agree in Case, Number, and Gender With the Subject

  • Puellaamata est.

  • The girl was loved.

  • Puellaeamataesunt.

  • The girls were loved.


Participle endings agree in case number and gender with the subject1
Participle Endings Agree in Case, Number, and Gender With the Subject

  • Equusamatus est.

  • The horse was loved.

  • Equiamatisunt.

  • The horses were loved.


Participle endings agree in case number and gender with the subject2
Participle Endings Agree in Case, Number, and Gender With the Subject

  • Templumamatum est.

  • The temple was loved.

  • Templaamatasunt.

  • The temples were loved.


Duco ducere duxi ductus lead
duco, ducere, duxi, ductus---lead the Subject

Singular Plural

1st ductusducti

2nd ductusducti

3rd ductusducti

sum

est

es

sumus

sunt

estis


Pluperfect Passive: The Same Pattern! the Subject

Just use “eram” as your helping verb.

amo, amare, amavi, amatus: love


Duco ducere duxi ductus lead1
duco, ducere, duxi, ductus---lead the Subject

Singular Plural

1st ductusducti

2nd ductusducti

3rd ductusducti

eram

erat

eras

eramus

erant

eratis


Future Perfect Passive: The Same Pattern the SubjectAGAIN!

Just use “ero” as your helping verb (future of sum)

amo, amare, amavi, amatus: love


Duco ducere duxi ductus lead2
duco, ducere, duxi, ductus---lead the Subject

Singular Plural

1st ductusducti

2nd ductusducti

3rd ductusducti

ero

erit

eris

erimus

erunt

eritis


Ready to practice
Ready to practice? the Subject

  • But first….


Workbook page 121 watch out for genders and plurals
Workbook page 121 the Subject(watch out for genders and plurals!)

missaest a. He will be sent

missaerunt b. it will have been sent

3. missumest c. They had been sent

mittetur d. She has been sent

missaesunt e. They were being sent

mittebantur f. They will have been sent

missus est g. They are sent

mittuntur h. They have been sent

missieranti. It was sent

missumerit j. He has been sent


Ready to practice more
Ready to practice more? the Subject

  • But once again….


  • beneficium the Subject,

  • benefici (n.)

  • kindness, benefit


  • exemplum, the Subject

  • exempli (n.)

  • example

  • exemplify, sample, exemplary


  • egregius the Subject,

  • egregia

  • egregium:

  • distinguished,

  • excellent

  • egregious


  • propono the Subject,

  • proponere,

  • proposui,

  • propositus:

  • put forward, offer


  • suscipio the Subject,

  • suscipere,

  • suscepi,

  • susceptus:

  • undertake, take up, start



  • sub: the Subject

  • under, close up to

  • + acc.: verbs of motion

  • + abl.: verbs of rest

  • suspicion, submarine


Workbook page 121 exercise e
Workbook page 121 Exercise “E” the Subject

  • Translate the 5 sentences in exercise “E” about pirates in the Roman world. Arrrrrgh!

  • Pay special attention to the passive voice verbs, especially your new perfect/pluperfect/future perfect passive tenses. (Whew! That’s a mouthful…!)


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