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Vaccination Experience in AI Control in Indonesia. Elly Sawitri Siregar Coordinator, HPAI-Campaign Management Unit Ministry of Agriculture Seminar 5-”Vaccination against AI: Issues and Strategies Within the Context of an Overall Control Program” Organized by

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Vaccination Experience in AI Control in Indonesia

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Vaccination Experience in AI Control in Indonesia

Elly Sawitri Siregar

Coordinator, HPAI-Campaign Management Unit

Ministry of Agriculture

Seminar 5-”Vaccination against AI: Issues and Strategies Within the Context of an Overall Control Program”

Organized by

World Bank, FAO, OIE and Tokyo Development Learning Center

March 19, 2008

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  • Background

  • Current HPAI situation

  • Control programme

  • Vaccination policy and implementation

  • Vaccine efficacy

  • Summary

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Poultry Numbers

  • Standing population:

    • Native/village317m (~630m annually)

    • Layer106m

    • Broiler175m (~1b annually)

    • Duck 35m

      Total >620m

      (plus others – quail, pigeon, goose…)

Source : Livestock Statistic (2007)

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The Poultry Industry

  • Total investmentUS$ 35b

  • TurnoverUS$ 30b pa

  • People employed>10m

  • Feed production 7.5m MT pa

  • DOC broiler>1b pa

  • DOC layer>100m pa

  • Markets13,000 markets daily

  • Abattoir processing<20%

Source : Indonesian Association of Poultry Companies (2004)

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Disease Situation

  • First identified in 2003

  • 31/33 provinces have confirmed cases (286/444 districts)

  • Incidence varies across the country

    • Endemic in Java, Bali, Sumatra and South Sulawesi

    • Lower incidence in eastern provinces

    • Based on limited surveillance

  • Both commercial and village poultry

  • Chickens, quails and ducks affected

  • Human cases since July 2005

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Poultry density and human cases

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Districts with confirmed infectionPDS, dinas and DIC data – 2007 (incomplete)

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9 Strategies for Control - 2004

  • Improvement of bio-security

  • Vaccination in infected and suspected areas

  • Depopulation (selective culling) and compensation

  • Control movement of live poultry, poultry products and farm waste

  • Surveillance and tracing back

  • Restocking

  • Stamping out in newly infected areas

  • Public awareness

  • Monitoring and evaluation

    * Decree of DG of Livestock Services, Feb 2004

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National Strategic Plan

  • National Strategic Work Plan for the Progressive Control of HPAI in Animals 2006-2008

  • 9 elements :

    • Campaign Management Unit

    • Enhancement of HPAI Control

      • Including vaccination

    • Surveillance and epidemiology

    • Diagnostic laboratory services

    • Animal quarantine services

    • Regulation

    • Communication

    • R & D

    • Poultry Industry Restructuring

  • Reviewed in June 2007 – no substantive change, but recognised need to intensify campaign

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  • Improve the management, planning and capacity for HPAI control

  • Reduce risk / Improve HPAI prevention

  • Improve detection and response

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Reducing Risk

  • There are many high risk practices along the production and market chain

  • These must be identified and the risk eliminated or reduced

  • But this will take time, so…

  • Vaccination of high risk populations will be necessary until risks reduced

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Risk Pathways


Chicken farms

Other birds

Incl. wild

Duck farms

incl grazing

DOC Dealers



Collector Yards

Wholesale market

Wholesale market

Duck farms

Chicken farms


Quail farms


Retail markets

2007 Indonesia, after Sims

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Risk Reduction


  • Vaccine

  • Farm biosecurity

  • Ducks

  • Transport/dealers

  • Traditional markets

  • Hatcheries

  • Information, education and communication

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Vaccination Policy

Rationale l.jpg


  • In mid 2003, AI was detected in Central Java and has spread to West Java and East Java…. and 2004 spread to Lampung, North Sumatera, Bali and South Sulawesi.

  • Poultry industry was infected and movement of commercial poultry might be the cause of spread to other islands.

  • Limited compensation fund was available for Sector 4 and Sector 3 (small scale)

  • Sector 1 and 2 no compensation

  • Mid 2004, vaccination policy was implemented by Government.

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Vaccination Strategy

  • Mass vaccination in mid 2004:

    • 300 M doses available

    • Inactivated H5N1 local isolate

    • Free of charge

    • Backyard and small farmers of any species

  • Mass vaccination continued in 2005 and early 2006

  • Vaccination in sectors 1, 2 and 3 (breeders and layers)

    • at their own cost

    • with coverage estimated to be 90% in commercial layer and 100% in breeding flocks

  • Mid 2006 due to limited vaccines – targeted vaccination:

    • Inactivated LPAI vaccine (H5N2)

  • 2007 – continued targeted vaccination of some populations in high risk provinces

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AI Vaccines

Vaccine use (GoI):

  • 2004 : 132m doses

  • 2005 : 143.4m doses

  • 2006 : 102.9m doses

  • 2007 : 98.5m doses

    Registered seed strains:

  • H5N1: A/Chicken/Legok/2003

  • H5N2: A/Turkey/England/N28/73


  • H5N9: A/Turkey/Wisconsin/68

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Vaccination problems

  • Complex programme management in the autonomy era

  • Limited resources against scale of task

    • Staff, equipment, operating, vaccine

  • Low vaccination coverage in Sector 4 (wide area, large population, free range)

  • A range of species infected - native chicken, commercial chicken, duck, quail

  • Poor biosecurity/Sector 4

  • Vaccination in poultry industry – re-occurrence of outbreaks by end 2005

  • And vaccine efficacy issues (results of SEPRL-DGLS-AAHL-FAO)

  • Review of antigenic variability of AI viruses in Indonesia

  • Virus isolates required for further assessment…

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Collaborative Vaccine Efficacy Project in 2007

  • MoA Indonesia

  • AAHL Australia

  • FAO


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Summary of Challenge Studies

  • PWT-WIJ/06 resistant to most vaccines

  • SMI-HAMD/06 was susceptible to most vaccines

  • Papua/06 was intermediate

    Source: Swayne, 2007

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  • What is the significance of PWT-WIJ/06 ?

  • Need representative viruses

    • Spatial, enterprise, species

    • Epidemiological information: vaccination status, clinical signs etc

    • Collected overtime

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Available isolates - region

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Summary of Sequence Analysis

  • Isolates from Indonesia fall within one clade

  • There are 3 other isolates that group with the PWT-WIJ/06

  • These 4 isolates appear to be somewhat different from the majority of isolates so far submitted

    Source: Peter Daniels, AAHL

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OFFLU Project in Indonesia Oct 2007-Sept 2008

  • Concerns over vaccine efficacy

    • Challenge tests results at SEPRL (USDA)

    • Outbreaks in commercial industry

  • OFFLU project “Monitoring AI virus variants in Indonesia Poultry and defining an effective and sustainable vaccination strategy”

    • MoA-Indonesia

    • FAO Rome, Bangkok and Jakarta

    • OIE

    • AAHL, Australia

    • VLA, UK

    • SEPRL, USA,

    • Erasmus, The Netherlands

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  • Antigenic mapping

  • Increased collection of representative isolates and mapping

  • Challenge tests/strain selection

  • Recommend Vaccination strategy

    • Identify efficacious current vaccines

    • Identify new seed strains, if required

    • Ongoing monitoring

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Work already carried out/on-going

  • Virus characterization by DNA sequencing (AAHL, Bbalitvet, VLA)

  • Efficacy testing of vaccine (SEPRL)

  • HI tests (SEPRL, VLA, Bbalitvet)

  • Antigenic cartography (Erasmus)

  • Under progress- vaccine construction (rev genetics) and autogenous vaccine (SEPRL)

  • Isolate sharing need to be increased

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  • HPAI remains endemic in many areas

  • Long term approach to risk reduction is required

  • Improved surveillance with better understanding of disease epidemiology

  • Commercial industry support is critical

  • Vaccination can be an important tool to reduce circulating H5N1 virus

    • Needs adequate resources and management

    • Monitoring of vaccination program critical

    • Is only component of successful disease control

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