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Designing Cohesive Lessons ~ Teaching Science in Middle and Secondary Schools. Mark Volkmann University of Missouri Columbia, MO. Design a Lesson Sequence:. Good lessons have a story line. Good lessons challenge students’ misconceptions

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Designing cohesive lessons teaching science in middle and secondary schools

Designing Cohesive Lessons ~ Teaching Science in Middle and Secondary Schools

Mark Volkmann

University of Missouri

Columbia, MO


Design a lesson sequence
Design a Lesson Sequence:

  • Good lessons have a story line.

  • Good lessons challenge students’ misconceptions

  • Good lessons help students develop evidence–based explanations.


Designing a story line
Designing a Story-Line

  • Start with 4 questions

    • What do you want students to learn? – the concept

    • How should the lesson begin? – the phenomenon

    • What representation should students understand?

    • What instructional steps connect the beginning phenomenon with the ending representation?


What do you want students to learn
What do you want students to learn?

  • The GLE for learning density: Objects, and the materials they are made of, have properties that can be used to describe and classify them. (Strand 1.1. A)

    • Compare the densities of regular and irregular objects using their respective measures of volume and mass (DOK 3)

    • Identify pure substances by their physical and chemical properties (i.e., color, luster/reflectivity, hardness, conductivity, density, pH, melting point, boiling point, specific heat, solubility, phase at room temperature, chemical reactivity) (DOK 1)


How should the lesson begin
How should the lesson begin?

  • If I place this vegetable into water, will it sink or float?

  • What does this have to do with density?


What representation should students understand
What representation should students understand?

  • What is the Mass to Volume ratio for each of the objects?

  • The mass to volume ratio is recognized by scientists as a very important quantity called density.

  • Density is the ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume.



Four principles of learning
Four Principles of Learning with the ending representation?

  • Principle #1: Prior learning matters

  • Principle #2: Learning is social

  • Principle #3: Students need to understand and frame knowledge

  • Principle #4: Self-monitoring is key


Let s practice these four steps
Let’s practice these four steps with the ending representation?

  • What do you want students to learn? – the concept

  • How should the lesson begin? – the phenomenon

  • What representation should students understand?

  • What instructional steps connect the beginning phenomenon with the ending representation?


Grade level expectation density
Grade Level Expectation - Density with the ending representation?

  • The GLE for learning density: Objects, and the materials they are made of, have properties that can be used to describe and classify them. (Strand 1.1. A)

    • Compare the densities of regular and irregular objects using their respective measures of volume and mass (DOK 3)

    • Identify pure substances by their physical and chemical properties (i.e., color, luster/reflectivity, hardness, conductivity, density, pH, melting point, boiling point, specific heat, solubility, phase at room temperature, chemical reactivity) (DOK 1)


Applying principles to teaching density
Applying Principles to Teaching Density with the ending representation?

  • Begin instruction with a question! Ideally, the question intersects with an interest of their own.

  • Begin with a concrete phenomena and move to an abstract concept.

    Concept

    Phenomena


Teaching sequence how do we decide
Teaching Sequence – How do we decide? with the ending representation?

  • Measure the mass and volume of an object to find density

  • Explore students’ explanations

  • Give a lecture explaining density

  • Demonstrate density phenomena

  • Practice density problems

  • Assess prior ideas

  • Apply density concepts

  • Evaluate student learning of density


Applying principles to teaching density1
Applying Principles to Teaching Density with the ending representation?

  • If I place this vegetable into water, will it sink or float?

  • What does this have to do with density?


Engaging and eliciting student thinking
Engaging and Eliciting Student Thinking with the ending representation?


Student ideas what does the research say
Student Ideas: What does the Research Say? with the ending representation?

  • Students’ pre-conceptions about floating and sinking:

  • Driver, R., Squires, A., Rushworth, P., & Wood-Robinson, V. (1994). Making sense of secondary science: Research into children’s ideas. London: Routledge Press.


Students explanations
Students’ Explanations with the ending representation?

  • What is the role of Mass?

  • What is the role of volume?

  • What is the role of air?

  • What is the role of shape?


Challenge students ideas
Challenge Students’ Ideas with the ending representation?


What is the role of water
What is the Role of Water? with the ending representation?


The role of water
The Role of Water with the ending representation?

Mass

Mass = Volume

Volume


A Graphical Representation Comparing Mass to Volume with the ending representation?

Mass

Water (Mass = Volume)

Volume


Mass with the ending representation?

Potato? Apple? & Carrot

Water (Mass = Volume)

Volume


Puzzler
Puzzler with the ending representation?

  • An egg has a mass of 54 grams and sinks in water. What is the volume of the egg? Is it greater than 54 cm3 or less than 54 cm3? Why do you think so?

  • If we placed the egg data on the graph for water, would the egg be located above or below the line for water?


Developing a conceptual explanation
Developing a Conceptual with the ending representation?Explanation

  • What is the Mass to Volume ratio for each of the objects?

  • The mass to volume ratio is recognized by scientists as a very important quantity called density.

  • Density is the ratio of the mass of a substance to its volume.


Apply the concept of density to a new context
Apply the Concept of Density to a new Context with the ending representation?

What would happen if we placed each object in alcohol? Would the object float or sink?

What do you know about floating and sinking in water that will help you answer this question?

What information do you already have?

What new information do you need to learn?


Elaboration a graphical representation for alcohol
Elaboration: A Graphical Representation for Alcohol with the ending representation?

Water Density

Alcohol Density Mass <Volume


Application of density to a
Application of Density to a with the ending representation?

Float or Sink in Alcohol:


Graphical representation for alcohol
Graphical Representation for Alcohol with the ending representation?

Alcohol Density (Mass <Volume)


How can we know that students have learned
How can we know that students have learned? with the ending representation?

  • What activities reveal student learning?

  • Talk to a neighbor.

  • How can you know in a classroom whether students have learned?


Summative evaluation 1
Summative Evaluation #1 with the ending representation?

  • If liquid A (density = 2.5 g/cc) is poured into liquid B (density = 3.0 g/cc), which will float? Why?

  • If liquid C (density = 1.2 g/cc) is poured into liquid D (density = 3.5 g/cc), which will float? Why?

  • If A and B are poured into C and D, what will be the order of floating from top to bottom? Why?

  • If a marble (density = 2.0 g/cc) is dropped into this column of liquids where do you predict it will float? Why?


Summative assessment 2
Summative Assessment #2 with the ending representation?

  • What measurements, or combination of measurements, would you use to predict if an object will float or sink?

    • Mass

    • Volume

    • Shape

    • Air


Summative assessment 3
Summative Assessment #3 with the ending representation?

  • A sample of gasoline has a mass of 50.0 grams and a volume of 60.0 cubic centimeters. What is the density of the gasoline?


Summative assessment 4
Summative Assessment #4 with the ending representation?

  • A sample of lead has a mass of 44 grams and a volume of 4 cubic centimeters. What is the mass of a sample that is 8 cubic centimeter?


Summative assessment 5
Summative Assessment #5 with the ending representation?

  • Does the Rootabega Sink or Float?

  • What information do you need to make a prediction?


What about density
What about density? with the ending representation?

  • Prior learning matters.

  • Learning is social.

  • Students need to understand and frame knowledge.

  • Self-monitoring is key.


What is your metaphor for teaching and learning? with the ending representation?

Director Gardener

Filling Station Guide


Do learners with the ending representation?acquire knowledge?


Do learners with the ending representation?construct knowledge?


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