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America In World War II. World War II: On The Home Front. Allies. Britain Led by Churchill United States After Pearl Harbor Led by Roosevelt Soviet Union Germany broke non-aggression pact and invaded Russia Led by Stalin. Industrial Production.

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allies
Allies
  • Britain
    • Led by Churchill
  • United States
    • After Pearl Harbor
    • Led by Roosevelt
  • Soviet Union
    • Germany broke non-aggression pact and invaded Russia
    • Led by Stalin
agencies to mobilize us economic and military resources for wartime
Agencies to mobilize US economic and military resources for wartime
  • WPB – War Production Board
    • Manage war industries
  • OWM – Office of War Mobilization
    • Set production priorities
    • Controlled raw materials
    • Cost plus system
      • Cost of production plus a percentage for profit
us out of depression
US out of Depression
  • Business is booming
  • Unemployment disappears
  • Outdid even the 1920s
efficient production
Efficient production
  • Astonishing production
  • Twice all of Axis powers combined
  • Henry Kaiser
    • Turned out a new ship every 14 days
wages prices rationing
Wages, Prices, Rationing
  • OPA – Office of Price Administration
    • Regulated civilian lives
      • Freezing prices
      • Freezing wages
      • Freezing rents
      • Rationing commodities
        • Meat
        • Gasoline
        • Tires
        • Other products
unions
Unions
  • Agreed no strikes while war was on
  • Freezing wages not popular with unions
  • Lewis calls for a few strikes
smith connally anti strike act
Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
  • Over FDRs veto
  • Allowed government to take over war related businesses whose operations were threatened by strikes
    • FDR did use to run railroads for a while
financing the war
Financing The War
  • Over $288 billion dollars
  • How
    • Increased income tax
      • Most Americans pay
      • Deducted from payroll
    • Selling war bonds
      • $135 billion sold
      • Lack of consumer goods made it easy to save
      • Very patriotic
every group in america adjusted
Every group in America adjusted
  • Millions leave rural areas for factory jobs in Midwest and Pacific
  • New communities arose around military factories
  • Many located in South because of climate and low labor costs
african americans
African Americans
  • 1.5 million leave South for jobs in North
  • Served in army
    • Segregation
    • Discrimination
      • Double V
        • Victory over fascism
        • Victory for equality
civil rights groups
Civil Rights Groups
  • NAACP membership rose
  • CORE – Congress of Racial Equality
    • Militant work for civil rights
  • Smith v. Allwright
    • Unconstitutional to deny membership in political parties to African Americans as way to keep them from voting
mexican americans
Mexican Americans
  • Worked in defense industries
  • Served in military
  • Braceros
    • Mexicans allowed to migrate to help with crop harvest
  • Zoot Suit Riots
    • Mexican immigrants stir white resentment
    • Battle on streets of Los Angeles - 1943
native americans
Native Americans
  • Defense industries
  • 25,000 in military
  • Navajo code breakers
japanese americans
Japanese Americans
  • Suffered from association with enemy
  • 20,000 loyally serve in military
  • Suspected of being spies and saboteurs
  • 100,000 into internment camps
    • All on west coast
korematsu v u s 1944
Korematsu v. U.S. (1944)
  • Supreme Court upholds government internment in time of war
  • 1988 government says injustice had been done and paid them $20,000 each that were still alive
women
Women
  • Changes women’s lives
  • Took jobs vacated by men
    • “Rosie the Riveter”
    • Paid less than men
    • Most left after war
  • 200,000 serve in military
propaganda
Propaganda
  • Government’s war propaganda everywhere
    • Posters, songs, news bulletins
    • Movies made
  • Office of War Information
    • Controlled news about troops and battles
    • Most patriotic war ever
again fdr
Again FDR
  • Many felt there should be no change in leadership during war
  • 4th nomination
  • Changed VP
    • Henry Wallace to radical
    • Harry Truman – Missouri
thomas dewey
Thomas Dewey
  • Republican nominee
  • Governor of New York
  • Could not offer anything different
  • Not very interesting election
  • Republicans did attack FDR’s dog Falla
results
Results
  • FDR
    • 53%
    • 432
  • Dewey
    • 47%
    • 99
two theater war
Two “theater” war
  • 1942 Japanese have huge empire
    • Philippines
    • Dutch East Indies
    • Islands of South Pacific
  • 1942 mostly about war on eastern front
    • Desperate attempt to save Russia from conquest
fighting germany
Fighting Germany
  • Stalingrad
    • Largest battle in history
    • Millions die
    • Turning point in war in eastern front
defense at sea attacks by air
Defense at sea, attacks by air
  • Must overcome German subs in Atlantic
    • Battle of the Atlantic
    • Began using
      • Radar
      • Sonar
      • Bombing naval bases
  • Begin bombing of German cities
from north africa to italy
From North Africa To Italy
  • Had to drive Germans out of North Africa
  • Operation Torch – 1942
  • Led by Eisenhower, Montgomery, and Patton
  • El Alamien
  • Tunisia
sicily
Sicily
  • Patton
  • Occupied in 1943
  • Mussolini falls from power
  • Germany now controls Italy
  • Soft Underbelly
    • Anzio
    • Monte Cassino
from d day to victory in europe
From D Day To Victory In Europe
  • June 6, 1944 – Normandy
  • Led by Eisenhower
  • Liberate Paris by August
  • September into Germany
    • Counter Attack
    • Battle of the Bulge winter 1944
german surrender
German Surrender
  • Bombing raids in Germany since 1942
    • Destroyed industrial capacity
  • Hitler commits suicide on April 30, 1945
  • Unconditional surrender on May 7, 1945
the holocaust
The Holocaust
  • Nazi program of genocide against Jews
  • 6 million jews killed, 9 million over all
  • Shocked world
fighting japan
Fighting Japan
  • U.S. against Japan alone
  • Japan controls East Asia and Southeast Asia
  • Occupied
    • Philippines
    • China
    • British Burma
    • Malaya
    • French Indochina
    • Dutch East Indies
    • Most of Pacific Islands west of Midway
turning point 1942
Turning Point 1942
  • Dominated by naval forces
    • Coral Sea – May – 1942
      • First all aircraft naval battle
    • Midway – June – 1942
      • Decoded Japanese messages
      • Surprise Japanese and destroy fleet
island hopping
Island Hopping
  • Get within striking distance of Japan
  • Seize strategic islands on the way
  • Bypass strongly held islands and isolate with navy
  • Admiral Nimitz
  • Douglas MacArthur
    • Commanded Southern Pacific fleet
    • Vowed to return to Philippines
major battles
Major Battles
  • Leyte Gulf
    • Largest naval battle in history
    • To pave way for occupation of Philippines
    • Destroyed Japanese navy
    • Use of Kamikaze pilots
      • Very damaging at Okinawa
        • 50,000 casualties
atomic bomb
Atomic Bomb
  • Manhatten Project
    • Begun in 1942
    • Led by Robert Oppenheimer
    • $2 billion dollars to develop
    • Tested on July 16, 1945 in New Mexico
truman and the bomb
Truman and the Bomb
  • Truman did not know about Manhatten Project as VP
  • Would not hesitate to use it to save American lives
  • Called on Japan to surrender or face “utter destruction”
dropping the bombs
Dropping the bombs
  • Hiroshima
    • Enola Gay
    • August 6, 1945
    • 100,000 die instantly
    • Does not end war
  • Nagasaki
    • August 9, 1945
    • Japanese look for peace
japan surrenders
Japan Surrenders
  • Agree to surrender if emperor could remain on throne but powerless
  • September 2, 1945
    • USS Missouri
    • Douglas MacArthur
    • Tokyo harbor
casablanca
Casablanca
  • January 1943
  • Roosevelt and Churchill
  • Agree to invade Sicily
  • Demand unconditional surrender
teheran
Teheran
  • Big Three – Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin
  • November 1943
  • Agree liberation of France in 1944 (D Day)
  • Soviets would invade Germany
  • Soviets would join in fight against Japan
yalta
Yalta
  • Big Three
  • February 1945
  • Soviet Union
  • Long Term Agreement
    • Germany to be divided and occupied
    • Free elections in Eastern Europe
    • Soviets enter war on Japan (August 8, 1945)
    • Soviets control Sakhalin island & Kurile Islands
    • Agree to form United Nations
death of fdr
Death of FDR
  • April 12, 1945
  • Warm Springs, Georgia
  • Shocked world
  • Truman becomes President
potsdam
Potsdam
  • Stalin, Truman, Attlee
  • August 1945
    • Issue warning of surrender to Japan unconditionally
    • Hold wartime trials of Nazi leaders
costs
Costs
  • 300,000 die
  • 800,000 wounded
  • $320 billion in costs
    • 10 times that of WWI
    • Debt increase 1,000%
    • $250 billion deficit
united nations
United Nations
  • Congress willing to accept peacekeeping organization after this war
  • Allies draw up plan in Washington DC
  • 50 nations meet in San Francisco April 1945
  • Senate accepts involvement
  • October 24, 1945 UN comes into existence
expectations
Expectations
  • New World order emerging from WWII
  • Hopes that life would be better & prosperous
  • US remained unscarred
  • US the most prosperous and powerful
  • Unfortunately Cold War begins
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