Un involvement in mozambique
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UN involvement in Mozambique. Harry and Amanda. Cause of the Conflict. A few years after Mozambique gained independence from Portugal in 1975, the country plunged into a long and demoralizing civil war between the Government and the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO).

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UN involvement in Mozambique

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UN involvement in Mozambique

Harry and Amanda


Cause of the Conflict

  • A few years after Mozambique gained independence from Portugal in 1975, the country plunged into a long and demoralizing civil war between the Government and the Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO).

  • This destabilised the area and displaced 3.7 million people from the area who fled the war.


Reasons for Involvement

  • On 4 October 1992, after two years of negotiations in Rome, the two parties signed a General Peace Agreement.

  • As part of the Agreement, the Security Council was to establish a United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) to monitor and support a ceasefire.

  • As a member of the UN Australia was obliged to send troops to the region.


Roles performed by the UN

  • The United Nations works, at the request of the Government of Mozambique, to support national development efforts, respond to emergencies and ensure peace and security for all Mozambicans.

  • The mandate of ONUMOZ was:

  • To monitor and verify the ceasefire, the separation and concentration of forces, their demobilization and the collection, storage and destruction of weapons;

  • To monitor and verify the complete withdrawal of foreign forces and to provide security in the transport corridors;

  • To monitor and verify the disbanding of private and irregular armed groups;

  • To authorize security arrangements for vital infrastructures and to provide security for United Nations and other international activities in support of the peace process;

  • To provide technical assistance and monitor the entire electoral process;

  • To coordinate and monitor humanitarian assistance operations, in particular those relating to refugees, internally displaced persons, demobilized military personnel and the affected local population.


Key Dates and Operations

  • 4 October 1992 - Two parties signed a general peace agreement.

  • In early 1993 - Some 6,500 troops and military observers, led by the Secretary-General's Special Representative were deployed.

  • 1993 - Repatriation of refugees began.

  • 1994 - Demobilisation began.

  • October 1994 - The country's first multiparty elections were held.

  • 8 and 9 December 1994 - The new Parliament and President were inaugurated.

  • January 1955 – The mandate of the UN ended.


Achievements of the Operation

  • 75% of displaced refugees were resettled, others not wishing to be repatriated.

  • Democracy was achieved with the first multiparty general elections.

  • Conflict came to an end and

    the ceasefire was upheld by

    both parties.


Evaluation of the success of the Operation

  • UN involvement in Mozambique was a success and assisted in the development and progression of democracy and peace in the area.


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