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Silicosis Prevention. Introduction to OSHA’s Special Emphasis Program. Silica Special Emphasis Program. Began in 1997 Part of OSHA current Strategic Plan (through 2008) Compliance Enforcement Consultation Training and Outreach OSHA Web-site

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Silicosis prevention
Silicosis Prevention

Introduction to OSHA’s Special Emphasis Program

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program


Silica special emphasis program
SilicaSpecial Emphasis Program

  • Began in 1997

  • Part of OSHA current Strategic Plan (through 2008)

  • Compliance Enforcement

  • Consultation

  • Training and Outreach

    • OSHA Web-site

  • Standard Development and Stakeholders Meetings Currently in Progress

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program


Why target crystalline silica exposure
Why Target Crystalline Silica Exposure?

  • 1. Toxicity is well documented

  • 2. Widespread worker overexposure

  • 3. Exposures can be controlled

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program


Case study 1930 s hawk s nest tunnel
Case Study, 1930’s: Hawk’s Nest Tunnel

  • Gauley Mt., W. VA.

  • 1930 – 1935

  • Estimated Deaths from Silicosis:

    • 500 to 750

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program


Progress made exposures in the 21 st century
Progress made: Exposures in the 21st Century

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program







What is silica
What is Silica?

  • Composes 15% of Earth’s Crust

  • 1. Crystalline Silica (regulated)

    • has a diagnostic X-ray diffraction pattern

  • 2. Amorphous Silica (not regulated)

    • “without form”

    • cannot distinguish by X-ray diffraction

    • Glass is common example

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program


Crystalline silica
Crystalline Silica

  • Examples:

    • Sand, Granite, other “Hard” rocks

  • Quartz, most common

  • Cristobalite, Tridymite

    • Much less common, but more toxic than quartz

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program


Potential silica exposures

Foundries

Ceramics Industry

Abrasive Blasting

Construction

Manufacturing of cleaning agents

Mining Operations

Use of Coal (e.g., electric power generation)

Potential Silica Exposures

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program


Silica and mortality
Silica and Mortality

  • 250 Worker deaths per year from Silica

    • (Compare to 175 deaths/yr from trenching accidents)

  • Silicosis

  • Tuberculosis

  • Heart Disease

  • Lung Cancer?

    • Suspect Hum. Carcinogen –A2 (ACGIH)

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program


Health effects
Health Effects

  • Chronic-Obstructive Pulmonary (Lung) Disease--COPD

  • Affects Aveolar Surface

    • Decreases Elasticity

    • Prevents Oxygen/CO2 Exchange

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program


Silicosis diagnosis
Silicosis Diagnosis

  • Requires Chest X-ray

  • X-ray must be read by qualified “B-Reader”

  • Silica Nodules are Non-Reversible

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program


Disease classes of silicosis
Disease Classes of Silicosis

  • 1. Acute Silicosis (Highest Exp.)

    • Latency of weeks to 5 years

  • 2. Accelerated Silicosis (High Exp.)

    • Latency of 5 to 15 years

  • 3. Chronic Silicosis (Moderate Exp.)

    • Latency >15 years

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program


Silicosis non curable disease
Silicosis: Non-Curable Disease

  • Prevention through Safe Workpractice is critical

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program


Silicosis prevention program
Silicosis Prevention Program

  • Engineering Control of Dust

  • Training on crystalline silica

  • Respiratory protection program

  • Work clothes, change and wash area

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program


Silicosis prevention program1
Silicosis Prevention Program

  • Air monitoring program

  • Medical surveillance

  • Housekeeping and Regulated Areas

  • Recordkeeping

Georgia Tech Safety and Health Consultation Program



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