Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes
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Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes. Objectives: Students will learn key terms associated with plate tectonic processes. (Part A) Students will understand the specific plate motions associated with divergent, convergent, and transform plate boundaries. (Part B)

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Plate tectonics and earthquakes

Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

  • Objectives:

    • Students will learn key terms associated with

    • plate tectonic processes. (Part A)

    • Students will understand the specific plate

    • motions associated with divergent,

    • convergent, and transform plate boundaries.

    • (Part B)

    • Students will gain a global view of EQ’s

    • (where EQ’s typically occur). (Part C)

    • Students will evaluate and apply concepts

    • from lab parts A, B, and C to answer critical

    • thinking questions. (Part D)


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

The Plate Tectonic Model

lithosphere

Volcanism

Patterns

Asthenosphere (upper mantle)

Earthquake

Patterns

  • The plate tectonic model describes surface features, geologic

  • environments, and patterns of EQ’s and volcanism.

  • Ridged lithospheric plates (continents + ocean floor) ride

  • along the soft layer (like hot wax) called the asthenosphere

  • Plates spread apart, collide, and slide past one another.

  • EQ’s, crustal deformation, and volcanism take place at plate

  • boundaries.


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

Plate Boundaries

Divergent Boundary – plates move AWAY from each other

Convergent Boundary – plates move TOWARD each other

Transform Boundary – plates SLIDE past each other


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

  • Divergent Boundary:

    • plate material separating

  • Earthquake activity

Extensional forces

create EQ’s

ocean plate divergence

continental divergence

Extension creates

faulting


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

  • Convergent Boundary:

    • interaction of two plates moving toward one another

    • making contact– hence, collision or convergence

    • collisions produce earthquakes, volcanic activity, and

    • crustal deformation

Ocean-Cont

Ocean-Ocean

Cont-Cont

Subduction

zone

Subductioin

zone

Oregon-Washington

Coast

Himalayan

Mountains

Aleutian Island

(Alaska area)


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

  • thinner and more dense plate

  • subducts

  • subducted plates melt (160 km)

  • below the surface, and magma

  • rises

  • EQ’s occur along the subduction

  • zone, and magma plumes rise

ocean-continent

  • Earthquake activity

  • typically, the older plate will

  • subduct (more dense) beneath

  • younger plate material

  • melting plate material rises,

  • creating volcanic arc systems

  • most EQ’s occur within the

  • subduction zone

ocean-ocean

  • two plates converge with the

  • same density

  • same density prevents

  • subduction

  • extensive deformation

cont-cont


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

  • Transform Boundary:

  • two plates are sliding past one another

  • lack the spectacular features associated with

  • divergent/convergent boundaries

  • marked by linear valleys (slices through the

  • earth’s crust)

  • shallow-focused EQ’s occur along the slip area of the

  • sliding plates

SAF


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

  • Transform boundaries offsetting

  • spreading ridges

    • Typical EQ’s occur along

    • the transform boundary.

Earthquakes

  • Cross-sectional view of the SAF

  • and associated LA faults

    • SAF – transform motion

    • LA faults- vertical motion

SAF-transform fault

Los Angeles


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

What moves or drives the plates?

What could Wegener have told the geological society?

Only a Model – Think Convection

Convection – heat transfer through a liquid or gas that

results in circular movement of particles

Cooler water sinks

Hot water rises


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

Earth Crust

The Earth’s Mantle

Can you see the convection?

mantle

mantle

Convection

Rise

Fall


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

Earth’s Surface

Mantle operates like a “lava lamp,” producing

swelling and shrinking of magma plumes.

57


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

  • Latitude and Longitude

  • Where are you on earth?

  • Latitude/Longitude

    • a grid system used to locate features on

    • the earth’s surface

  • Latitude:

    • parallel lines that move north

  • and south

  • 0o latitude = equator

  • Longitude:

    • meridian lines that move east

    • and west

  • 0o longitude is through

  • Greenwich, England

11


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

Los Angeles, Ca 350 N-lat, 1210 W-long

Spokane, Wa470 N-lat, 1180 W-long

12

New York, NY420 N-lat, 750 W-long


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

West

East

Latitude (+)

Longitude (+)

Latitude (+)

Longitude (-)

North

Equator

South

Latitude (-)

Longitude (-)

Latitude (-)

Longitude (+)

Latitude (

Prime Meridian


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

13

52 N-lat, 78 E long

B

15 N-lat, -132 W-long

A

-25 S-lat, 136 E long

D

E

-18 S-lat, -162 W-long

-55 S-lat, -15 W-long

C


Plate tectonics and earthquakes

  • Plate Tectonics Lab:

    • Part A: Plate tectonic definitions

      • use lab text

      • use textbook resources in classroom

    • Part B: Identification of plate boundaries

      • use lab text, colored pencils

      • use textbook resources in classroom

    • Part C: Plotting EQ location

      • use provided long/lat handouts

      • use colored pencils

    • Part D: Critical thinking questions

      • use parts A, B, and C and your

      • synthesizing brain.


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